Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease

Models and Treatments

Edited by Juliana Dushanova

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

Parkinson's disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current PD medications treat symptoms; none halt or retard dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The main obstacle to developing neuroprotective therapies is a limited understanding of the key molecular mechanisms that provoke neurodegeneration. The discovery of PD genes has led to the hypothesis that misfolding of proteins and dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are pivotal to PD pathogenesis. Previously implicated culprits in PD neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress may also act in part by causing the accumulation of misfolded proteins, in addition to producing other deleterious events in dopaminergic neurons. Neurotoxin-based models have been important in elucidating the molecular cascade of cell death in dopaminergic neurons. PD models based on the manipulation of PD genes should prove valuable in elucidating important aspects of the disease, such as selective vulnerability of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons to the degenerative process.

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Mechanisms in Parkinson's DiseaseModels and TreatmentsEdited by Juliana Dushanova

Published: February 8th 2012

DOI: 10.5772/1826

ISBN: 978-953-307-876-2

eBook (PDF) ISBN: 978-953-51-6741-9

Copyright year: 2012

Books open for chapter submissions

55156 Total Chapter Downloads

10 Crossref Citations

24 Web of Science Citations

32 Dimensions Citations


Open access peer-reviewed

1. Update in Parkinson’s Disease

By Fátima Carrillo and Pablo Mir


Open access peer-reviewed

2. Timing Control in Parkinson’s Disease

By Quincy J. Almeida


Open access peer-reviewed

3. Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Parkinson's Disease

By Marisa G. Repetto, Raúl O. Domínguez, Enrique R. Marschoff and Jorge A. Serra


Open access peer-reviewed

4. The Execution Step in Parkinson’s Disease – On the Vicious Cycle of Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition, Iron Dishomeostasis and Oxidative Stress

By Marco T. Núñez, Pamela Urrutia, Natalia Mena and Pabla Aguirre


Open access peer-reviewed

5. Filterable Forms of Nocardia: An Infectious Focus in the Parkinsonian Midbrains

By Shunro Kohbata, Ryoichi Hayashi, Tomokazu Tamura and Chitoshi Kadoya


Open access peer-reviewed

6. Parkinson’s Disease and the Immune System

By Roberta J. Ward1, R.R. Crichton1 and D.T. Dexter


Open access peer-reviewed

7. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 – An Emerging Player in Parkinson’s Disease Pathophysiology

By Zelda H. Cheung and Nancy Y. Ip


Open access peer-reviewed

8. Regulation of a-Synuclein Membrane Binding and Its Implications

By Robert H.C. Chen, Sabine Wislet-Gendebien, Howard T.J. Mount and Anurag Tandon


Open access peer-reviewed

9. Role of FKBPs in Parkinson’s Disease

By Souvik Chattopadhaya, Amaravadhi Harikishore and Ho Sup Yoon


Open access peer-reviewed

10. Targeting Tyrosine Hydroxylase to Improve Bradykinesia

By Michael F. Salvatore


Open access peer-reviewed

11. Wading into a Theoretical Model for Parkinson's Disease

By Diana W. Verzi


Open access peer-reviewed

12. Successes of Modelling Parkinson Disease in Drosophila

By Brian E. Staveley


Open access peer-reviewed

13. Parkinson’s Disease and Parkin: Insights from Park2 Knockout Mice

By Sarah E.M. Stephenson, Juliet M. Taylor and Paul J. Lockhart


Open access peer-reviewed

14. Bilateral Distribution of Oxytocinase Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Experimental Hemiparkinsonism

By Manuel Ramírez, Inmaculada Banegas, Ana Belén Segarra, Rosemary Wangesteen, Marc de Gasparo, Raquel Durán, Francisco Vives, Antonio Martínez, Francisco Alba and Isabel Prieto


Open access peer-reviewed

15. Dictyostelium discoideum: A Model System to Study LRRK2-Mediated Parkinson Disease

By Arjan Kortholt, Bernd Gilsbach, and Peter J.M. van Haastert


Open access peer-reviewed

16. Comparison of Normal and Parkinsonian Microcircuit Dynamics in the Rodent Striatum

By O. Jaidar, L. Carrillo-Reid and J. Bargas


Open access peer-reviewed

17. Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Toxins and Genetic Manipulation

By Shin Hisahara and Shun Shimohama


Open access peer-reviewed

18. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Butanol Extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on the Exposure to Chronic Stress in a 6-Hydroxydopamine- Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Treated with or Without L-DOPA

By Myung Koo Lee, Hyun Sook Choi, Chen Lei, Kwang Hoon Suh, Keon Sung Shin, Seung Hwan Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang and Chong Kil Lee


Open access peer-reviewed

19. Acetyl-L-Carnitine in Parkinson’s Disease

By Maria Stefania Sinicropi, Nicola Rovito, Alessia Carocci and Giuseppe Genchi


Open access peer-reviewed

20. Distribution and Regulation of the G Protein- Coupled Receptor Gpr88 in the Striatum: Relevance to Parkinson’s Disease

By Renaud Massart, Pierre Sokoloff and Jorge Diaz


Open access peer-reviewed

21. Human Lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster as Model System to Study Oxidative Stress in Parkinson's Disease

By Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio and Carlos Velez-Pardo


Open access peer-reviewed

22. Inflammation in Parkinson’s Disease: Causes and Consequences

By Louise M. Collins, André Toulouse and Yvonne M. Nolan


Open access peer-reviewed

23. Neurotensin as Modulator of Basal Ganglia- Thalamocortical Motor Circuit – Emerging Evidence for Neurotensin NTS1 Receptor as a Potential Target in Parkinson's Disease

By Luca Ferraro, Tiziana Antonelli, Sarah Beggiato, Maria Cristina Tomasini, Antonio Steardo, Kjell Fuxe and Sergio Tanganelli


Open access peer-reviewed

24. Application of Embryonic Stem Cells in Parkinson’s Disease

By Hassan Niknejad


Open access peer-reviewed

25. The Role of the Neuropeptide Substance P in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease

By Emma Thornton and Robert Vink


Open access peer-reviewed

26. Noradrenergic Mechanisms in Parkinson’s Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia: Hypothesis and Evidences from Behavioural and Biochemical Studies

By Amal Alachkar


Open access peer-reviewed

27. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Associated with Japanese Parkinson’s Patients

By Shigeru Takasaki


Open access peer-reviewed

28. Role of 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Parkinsonian Disorders

By Masahiko Suzuki


Edited Volume and chapters are indexed in

  • Worldcat
  • OpenAIRE
  • Google Scholar
  • AZ ebsco
  • Base
  • CNKI

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