Editorial policies

All publications on this website are published under the Open Access model, without any subscription, registration, or access fees required from the user or his/her institution. In accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative's (BOAI) definition of Open Access, users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, and link to the full text versions of all chapters. To read more about our Open Access Statement click here.

Copyright Policy

All published book chapters are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Monographs are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license granted to all others. Our Copyright Policy aims to guarantee that original material is published while at the same time giving significant freedom to our authors. IntechOpen upholds a flexible copyright policy meaning that there is no copyright transfer to the publisher and authors hold exclusive copyright to their work.

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Attribution Policy

With the purpose of protecting authors' copyright and the transparent reuse of Open Access content, IntechOpen developed an attribution policy for works published under Creative Commons licenses.

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Ethics Standards

IntechOpen is committed to disseminating high-quality scientific research in a manner that exemplifies the best of scholarly publishing. IntechOpen is also an official member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) maintaining the highest ethical standards for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the authors, the Academic Editors of the book, the peer-reviewers, the publisher, and the Societies (if applicable).

Conflicts of Interest Policy

In line with publication ethics practices recommended by COPE, ICMJE, and other similar organizations, IntechOpen's contributing authors, Academic Editors, and reviewers are required to transparently declare all possible conflicts of interest.

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Authorship Policy

IntechOpen's Authorship Policy is based on ICMJE criteria for authorship. In order to be identified as an Author, one must:

  • Substantially contribute to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
  • Participate in drafting or revising the work
  • Approve the manuscript version to be published

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Peer Review Policies

All scientific Works are subject to peer-review prior to publishing. IntechOpen is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and all participating referees and Academic Editors are instructed to review submitted scientific works in line with the COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer-Reviewers where applicable.

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Prior Publication Policy

The Internet has changed the dynamics of scholarly communication and publishing which is why we find it necessary to clearly indicate our stance on what we consider to be a published scientific work. A great number of working papers, early drafts and similar works in progress gets openly shared online between the members of the scientific community. It has become common to announce one’s own research on a personal website or a blog to gather comments and suggestions from other researchers. Such works and online postings are indeed published in a sense that they are made publicly available, but this does not mean that if submitted for publication by IntechOpen they are not original works. Therefore, we differentiate between reviewed and non-reviewed works when determining whether a work is original and has been published in a scholarly sense or not.

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Retraction and Correction Policy

To identify instances of fraud and misconduct during the publishing process, the publisher, IntechOpen, implements a robust policy to govern such occurrences. In line with our general commitment to openness and in order to maintain high scientific standards, we feel obligated to be transparent about our editorial policy regarding retractions and corrections.

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Dealing with Misconduct

When faced with presumable misconduct, IntechOpen has the responsibility to maintain the integrity of the academic record. For particularly complex cases IntechOpen might ask for the assistance of formal industry bodies or seek advice from a team of advisors.

IntechOpen's advisors are professionals and scholars with broad knowledge and understanding of different aspects of the scientific publishing process: editorial, authorship, and reviewing roles; publication ethics, copyright, and general legal issues; bibliographic and technical standards.

In order to provide us with unbiased insights, and without compromising the privacy of third parties, IntechOpen obliges to present the questionable cases to its advisors exclusively in their anonymized form.

Translation Policy

IntechOpen publishes books in the English language. In case you are interested in the translation of book chapters please check IntechOpen's Translation Policy.

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Advertising Policy

Advertising is currently not permitted in any of our publications.

Refund Policy

At IntechOpen we realize that exceptional circumstances can take place resulting in a request for a refund. Therefore, in accordance with our Refund Policy, we will honor justified refund requests for specific instances.

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Early Online Release Policy

Copyedited and typeset version of the chapters can be first published on our web page (EARLY ONLINE RELEASE) - peer reviewed works accepted for publication, published online before production and final publication of the scientific open access books they are part of. EARLY ONLINE RELEASE chapters are considered to be pre-published on the day they are posted and are citable from that date.

The chapters will remain listed as early online chapter releases until the final versions of the books are published online. At this time the chapters will be redirected from the early online chapter release version and will be available only through the final link of the official published page.

While published in the early online chapter release version, language corrections, technical editing and other changes are still possible in the chapters. These changes do not affect the scientific content of the published works.

Feel free to download, use, reproduce, make derivative works of, display, distribute and cite the EARLY ONLINE RELEASE works which you find online by following the "How to reference" guidelines, and please be aware that further editing and changes before the final release of the book are possible.

If there are supplemental materials to the chapter, these will be published at the time when the final book will published online.