Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Kalman Filter - Engineering Applications

Yuri Kim

Canadian Space Agency

Prof. Y.V. Kim is a Doctor of Technical Science, having a broad and wealthy international scientific, engineering, and teaching experience, obtained in the former USSR, Israel, and Canada. He has many scientific publications and implemented inventions dedicated to Aerospace GN&C.

Covering

Separation Theorem Extended Kalman Filter Covariance Matrix Riccati Equation FBGM Analytical Implementation Forms Physical Implementation Forms Steady State Filter Inertial Navigation System Global Positioning System Controllability Multisensory Navigation

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About the book

The book will aim to examine the Kalman Filter (KF), also known as the Kalman Bucy Filter (KBF), from the standpoint of its engineering implementation. The intended purpose of the book will be to extend the circle of users of the Kalman filter by considering it not as a means of theoretical analysis, but rather as a powerful tool for the design of a technical system. The editor accumulated experience of using suboptimal KF in various aerospace applications and would wish to share it with the pool of potential users and like-minded specialists. Instead of the formal programming of the recursive KF equations some simple and robust sub-optimal forms are proposed. For example, developed by the editor, suboptimal (KBF), with bounded grows of memory (FBGM) and its steady-state form- the time-invariant filter with constant coefficients is aimed to be considered. This allows the developer to use the KBF not only for system state estimation but for control as well. Proceeding in this way developer can be guaranteed the filter stability and robustness in many practically uncertain situations when the statistic characteristics of system disturbances and measured errors are not entirely known. A guaranteed approach with using an equivalent white noise is also aimed to be considered. Some representative examples from typical aerospace systems (the editor’s main professional field) are intended to be presented. Summarizing the above, it can be emphasized that when implementing the KF it is always useful to replace the art of programming with the experience of designing conventional robust systems having an idealistic estimate of maximum (best) of achievable performance. This would prevent the system's real-time computer from many possible situations with “empty “computations and even to the divergence of the computational process. It can also show that the filter is not a magic mill and cannot achieve the desired performance if it cannot be achieved in principle, better that it can be “promised” by the KF quadratic criterion minimum, or if some state vector components are not observable and controllable.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: March 15th 2022

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline for chapter proposals: June 2nd 2022

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

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Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: August 1st 2022

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: October 20th 2022

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

Book compiled, published and promoted

Expected publication date: December 19th 2022

All chapters are copy-checked and typesetted before being published. IntechOpen regularly submits its books to major databases for evaluation and coverage, including the Clarivate Analytics Book Citation Index in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection. Other discipline-specific databases are also targeted, such as Web of Science's BIOSIS Previews.

About the editor

Yuri Kim

Canadian Space Agency

Yuri Kim 24 Buttenut, Gatineau, QC, Canada Tel : 1-(514)- 466-1033, e-mail: yurikim@hotmail.ca HIGHLIGHTS OF QUALIFICATIONS: Experienced scientist, engineer and manager with internationally recognized achievements in area of Aerospace Avionics, (GN&C); Analysis, design (HW&SW), integration, testing and operation for various aerospace platforms and missions. Gained a broad experience in preparation of technical documents for Joint (Industry-Customer) State Commissions for the acceptance (commissioning) of Aerospace Avionics, Navigation and Special application experimental equipment for further serial production, and operational support. Last works have been dedicated to R&D projects developing new Satellite Navigation Control Technology and customer support of Canadian satellites Control system design. ACADEMIC DEGREES: 1991 *Doctor of Technical Science Diploma in Aerospace Vehicles Guidance Navigation and Control Scientific Council of State Institute of Automatic Systems, Ministry of Aviation Industry of USSR, Moscow (Recognized by Canadian Professional Counsel of Engineers) 1982 * Senior Scientific Fellow Diploma in Gyroscopes and Navigation systems Capital Certification Commission of Scientists, Ministry of High Education of USSR, Moscow. (Recognized by Canadian Professional Counsel of Engineers) 1974 * Candidate of Technical Science Diploma in Aerospace Navigation and Control Systems (Accredited as Ph.D by York University, Toronto.) Scientific Council of Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow. 1970 * Engineer Electromechanic Diploma in Gyro and Navigation systems, Faculty of Flight Apparatuses Control Systems, Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow (Accredited as between Masters Degree and Bachelor Degree by York University, Toronto). 1965 * Radio and TV Systems Technician Certificate, Dnepropetrovsk Technical School of preparation of technical specialists for Soviet Army, Military Aviation and Navy. MILITARY EDUCATION: 1970 * Engineer in ballistic rocket control system, Military Faculty of MAI, last rank senior engineer-lieutenant (in reserve) EMPLOYMENT HISTORY: A. GOVERNMENT At present - Canadian Space Agency, Space Science and Technology Division, David Florida Laboratory Senior Aerospace System engineer ° Performing, developing and supporting phases of design, testing, commissioning and operation for space vehicle orbit and attitude control systems, in particular: Tecsas, Scope, J2Sat, Small satellite, M3Msat, Cassiopea, Neossat, RCM, PCW ° Reviewing and commenting on Attitude Control systems design documentations, related to all phases of system development commissioning and operation ° Supporting Aerospace Industry R&D projects funding by CSA (STDP) as Scientific Authority, in particular: Microwheel (Dynacon), LOCOOS (NGC), PCW (Bristol) ° Providing expertise on new initiatives for Space Exploration and Utilization regarding Attitude and Orbital Control and possible development of Canadian space launcher ° Developing basic mathematical (Simulink/Matlab) simulator for developing the requirements and expected performance of AODCS for new space vehicles ° Developing new basic technology (based on Kalman Filter) for satellite attitude determination and sensor calibration, developing of FF test-bed equipment and GPS navigation in environment of CSA laboratory, developing of methods of ACS sensors calibration, measuring and compensation of satellite residual magnetic moment, experimental determination of satellite inertia matrix during ACS integration tests ° Interacting with Space Industry and Universities in the problems, related to development of new methods and systems for space vehicle attitude and orbit determination and control ° Sharing with International Aerospace community CSA achievements and experience in development of new technologies and methods for space vehicle attitude and orbit determination and control through publications, presentations and participation in scientific conferences, meetings and symposiums as well as maintaining an awareness about new technological advancements ° Providing professional training for students and post. Graduates in the area of Orbital and Attitude Dynamic and Control B. INDUSTRIAL Sept. 1998 – Feb. 1999 – Olympia Engineering Ltd. (Toronto) Research and Development Engineer • Development of measuring instrument for measuring remote measuring of micro- deformations of machinery (milling machine) equipment • Research and testing of differential GPS survey equipment and antennas in environment of industrial facility for developing a new remote method for the measuring of machinery micro-deformations Feb.1999 – Jun.2002 – Saskatoon Engineering Division of Calian Company, Radarsat-1 Operation Team (CSA, Montreal) Attitude Control System Analyst • Working as RADARSAT-1 Attitude Control System Analyst performing day-to-day operation TLM data analysis; reporting, monitoring and solving ACS flight anomaly problems, maintaining ACS software and performance • Author of many reports (see attached list of publications), devoted to solving of Radarsat-1 non-benign Safe Hold Mode problem, Momentum Wheel failure problems and improvement of the performance of attitude determination method with Magnetometer and Sun Sensor (back up, ADM3 mode for the case of potential failure of Horizon Scanner). • Preparation and implementation of the solution for RADARSAT-1 operation without failed Momentum Wheels, that saved the satellite mission after the wheel failures (This work was prolonged after in CSA and awarded by the Canadian Government Award for the invention used by the Government) • Design and implementation of new dynamic simulators (based on Simulink toolbox) for Radarsat-1 ACS for operation support • Preparation for operation of new Canadian satellites Scisat and RADARSAT-2 Jan. 1994 – Sep. 1997 – Israel Aviation Industry (IAI factories: TASHAN, LAHAV) Avionics system engineer • Research and preliminary design of the Special Data Fusion System for a fighter-interceptor • Integration of Inertial Navigation System with Global Position System into Upgraded Avionics Suit and installation in aircraft cockpit for A/C – trainer T-38 Nov. 1977 – Apr. 1993 – Moscow Research and Design Institute of Electromechanic and Automatic (formerly P/B: M5537, presently “Aviapribor” Corporation) Head of Division (R&D in Pilot-Navigation Systems) • Leadership of the Division, performing planning, financial and methodological duties, related to this position, reporting to the R&D deputy director of the Institute • Responsibility for Pilot-Navigation System integration, interaction, tests and transferring for serial production and operational support • Initiation and methodical leadership of innovative research and development projects • Reviewing, commenting and implementation of Technical standards and Navigation norms as well as sharing progressive methods and results within Aerospace organizations within former USSR Head of Department (INS and Flight Management System SW Development) • Leadership and performing of duties of Head of Department • Responsibility for the prospective research and preliminary design of the Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Flight Management Systems (FMS) • Design of the INS and FMS algorithms and simulation of expected performance • Development of INS/FMS flight code • Development of test procedures and simulators for FMS, and pilot nav.complexis for aircrafts • Responsibility for system performance analysis in the ground and flight tests Head of Sector (System Flight Test data analysis) • Leadership of the Sector • Development of ground and flight test simulation procedures and requirements for test equipment and simulators, for flight test aircraft measuring equipment, installation and recorded data processing • Design of Estimation and Identification algorithms for ground and flight data processing • Test data analysis, preparation of test results analysis reports and conclusions Senior Scientific Fellow • Research, development and principal design of the special Suboptimal Kalman Filter for the fusion of data of various navigation sensors for aviation and space platforms • Development of new Guidance and Navigation methods for aviation and space platforms • Analysis of INS and FMS performance in ground and flight tests C. ACADEMIC 1977–1993 – Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow Institute of Instrument - Making, Aviation Industry Ministry Upgrade Qualification Institute (Part Time) Professor, Associate professor, Chairmen of State Diploma Commission, Member of Scientific Council • Lecturer of the disciplines: Applied Oscillation, Theory (MIIM), Design of Instruments (MIIM), Integrated Navigation Systems (MUQI) • Chairman of the State Diploma Commission -Gyro Instruments and Systems (MAI) • Leadership of postgraduates, participation in sessions of Scientific Council (MAI) • Methodical management of cathedra of Orientation and Navigation in MAI 2009 McGill University, Montreal Part time lecturer for course (in English): Aircraft Performance, Stability and Control 1970–1977 – Moscow Aviation Institute (Full Time) Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Assistant Lecturer • Lecturer of the courses: Spacecraft orbital mechanics and attitude determination and control, Inertial Navigation Systems, Gyro Instruments and Systems • Research and development of suboptimal robust estimation methods for navigation data processing • Responsibility for the navigation systems laboratory • Deputy head of cathedra of Orientation and Navigation FIELDS OF THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGIC EXPERTISE: • Space vehicle Orbit and Attitude determination and control • Gyro instruments and systems • Radio navigation systems • Inertial Navigation systems • Airplane Navigation and Control • Analytical mechanics • Applied oscillation theory • Automatic control theory • Stochastic estimation theory ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE: • Flight and laboratory tests of Aerospace Avionics Equipment • Distribution of mission requirements between Aerospace vehicle subsystems, definition of functions and ICD • Spacecraft operation and performance maintenance • Avionics system (hardware and software) development and testing (autonomously and integration) • Inertial navigation systems • Development of Avionics for Soviet Military aircrafts: Tu-142, Tu-95MC, An-124, An-70, A-40, Soviet Space shuttle “Buran” (responsibility for preliminary design of radio-navigation automatic landing system), • Israel (IAI) upgrade of Avionics system for T-38 (USA Air force trainer) • Operation and modification in space Canadian Satellite RADARSAT-1 Attitude Control system • Participation in commissioning of ACS of Canadian Satellite Scisat • Development of a generic mathematical simulator for satellite AODCS analysis and simulation of expected performance for a family of Canadian new generation small satellites SCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE: • Theoretical and experimental investigation in the fields of S/C Orbital and Attitude Control • Kalman Filter suboptimization and robust guarantee estimation theory development: authorship of new Suboptimal Kalman Filter modification, methods of INS correction and calibration, Geomagnetic Inertial Navigation System • Research in areas of ACS and INS sensors development, their performance improvement • Various Avionics Systems Mathematical models development and mathematical and semi-natural simulation • Coordination of research and development projects related to Aerospace equipment performed by Universities and Industries • Scientific reports and articles reviewing and editorship • Membership in Scientific Counsels and Commissions • Tutorship of under-graduate, graduated and post -graduate students • Scientific reports and inventions in the field of GN&C for aircraft and spacecraft methods development • Several articles dedicated to the development of new methods in estimation theory: new suboptimal Kalman Filter with limited growth of the memory, observability and factor of state vector components estimation, guaranteed ellipsoidal estimation and stochastic estimation comparison LANGUAGES: • English, Russian, Ukrainian, Hebrew, French (beginning level) • Programming languages: Matlab/Simulinc/С

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