About the book
Nephrolithiasis (also known as Urolithiasis) is a complex disorder with a significant interplay between genetic and environmental influences in aetiology. Over the past century, significant work has been performed to understand the aetiology and pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis.
However, it has not been translated into clinically relevant preventive strategies. The rising incidence of nephrolithiasis and its link with metabolic syndrome is an interesting phenomenon. Recently, significant work has been done in this regard as well. Over the past few decades, we have also witnessed a significant change in the diagnostic and follow-up of nephrolithiasis using imaging. Whereas ultrasound and IVU were the mainstays in the past decade, CT has now taken over. CT has very high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis but is associated with significant radiation exposure. Modifications and improvements in ultrasound technology with the introduction of contrast-enhanced and duplex ultrasound are significant advancements. The past three decades have also witnessed the rise and fall of shock wave lithotripsy. In recent years, advancements in endourology with miniaturization of instruments and better stone fragmentation modalities have made endourology the predominant mode of treatment for most upper and lower urinary tract stones. Stones can be present in certain challenging situations due to anatomical variations, pregnancy, urinary diversions, etc. In addition, various medical conditions like cystinuria, use of anticoagulants, etc. can make endourology difficult.
This book aims to collect the recent research in the area and provide a comprehensive overview of some of the contemporary developments.