Some of the achievements of modern optical metrology are offered for the reader at this chapter. Optical testing methods have always attracted by their important advantages: distance, non-destructive impact on the test object and, of course, high accuracy. So, using of polarization optics approach, the authors were able to implement the methods for controlling the surface roughness for the moving surface with the measurement accuracy of 10 angstroms. It has become possible to make a breakthrough in the basic methods of measurements from the nano to the femto or pico units of the measured quantity value over the past decades. Control of nano (micro) particle motion by an optical field and their use for testing complex optical fields; ultra-precise determination of the optical parameters of both solid and liquid and gas-like substances by optical methods; by interference methods and many other, are proposed for consideration here. Some biomedical applications are also offered for reader’s familiarization. Particularly, the results of 3D Stokes-polarimetric mapping of microscopic biological images with digital holographic reproduction of layer-by-layer ellipticity polarization maps in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors with different degrees of differentiation are presented. The authors have shown that using of polarization-holographic measurements in biomedical applications makes it possible to obtain a reliable diagnostic of pathological states both of biological fluids and solid-state objects.
Part of the book: Applied Aspects of Modern Metrology