The pico- and femtosecond laser micromachining has grown up as a reliable tool for precise manufacturing and electronic industries to make fine drilling and machining into hard metals and ceramics as well as soft plastic and to form various nano- and microtextures for improvement of surface functions and properties in products. The ultrashort-pulse laser machining systems were developed to describe the fine microdrilling and microtexturing behavior for various materials. Accuracy in circularity and drilled depth were evaluated to discuss the effect of substrate materials on the laser microdrilling. Accuracy in unit geometry and alignment was also discussed for applications. A carbon base mold substrate was micromachined to transcribe its microtextures to transparent plastics and oxide glasses. Three practical examples were introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of nano-/microtexturing on the improvement of microjoinability, the reduction in friction and wear of mechanical parts and tools, and the surface property control. The fast-rate laser machinability, the spatial resolution in laser microtexturing as well as the laser micromanufacturing capacity were discussed to aim at the future innovations in manufacturing toward the sustainable society.
Part of the book: Micromachining
CVD-diamond coated special tools have been widely utilized to prolong their tool life in practical production lines. WC (Co) punch for fine piercing of metallic sheets required for high wear-toughness to be free from chipping and damages and for high product quality to punch out the holes with sufficient dimensional accuracy. The laser trimming process was developed to reduce the surface roughness of diamond coating down to submicron level and to adjust its diamond layer dimensions with a sharp punch edge for accurate piercing. The pulsed laser irradiation was employed to demonstrate that micro-groove was accurately formed into the diamond coating. Less deterioration in the worked diamond film by this laser treatment was proved by the Raman spectroscopy. The femtosecond laser trimming was proposed to sharpen the punch edge down to 2 μm and to form the nano-textured punch side surfaces with the LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structuring)-period of 300 nm. Fine piercing experiments were performed to demonstrate that punch life was significantly extended to continuous punching in more than 10,000 shots and that mirror-shining hole surfaces were attained in every shot by regularly coining the nanotextures. The sharp punch edge with homogeneous edge profile was responsible for reduction of the induced damages into work sheet by piercing. The punch life was extended by the ejection mechanism of debris particles through the nanotextures on the punch side surface. The present laser treatment was useful in trimming and nanostructuring the complex-shaped punch edge for industrial application.
Part of the book: Engineering Applications of Diamond
A femtosecond laser micro−/nano-texturing was proposed to fabricate the coated and surface treated dies with the tailored textures for surface decoration and surface property control of metal, polymer and glass products. The polygonal model for microtextures with nanotextures by the LIPSS-effect was utilized to fabricate a DLC-coated SKD11 die with a star-shaped emblem. This die was set up into the cassette die set for directly imprinting this emblem into aluminum alloy and PET sheets. The periodic surface structure was synthesized as a surface geometry model to build up the super-hydrophobic surface on the nitrogen supersaturated AISI316 die. This die was also set up into a hot stamping system to directly imprint the hydrophobic surface onto the phosphorous glass products. Through the femtosecond laser micro−/nano-texturing and CNC-imprinting, the metal, polymer and glass product surfaces were optically decorated to have color grating and plasmonic brilliance and functionally controlled to be hydrophobic.
Part of the book: Terahertz, Ultrafast Lasers and Their Medical and Industrial Applications