The neuroimmune network represents a dense network of multiple signals mediated by neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors, and cytokines produced by multiple lineage cells and is crucial for maintaining neuroimmune homeostasis. Endogenous and exogenous stimuli, which are dangerous to the body, are detected by sensor cells, and they rapidly inform the brain through this network. Innate immunity is thought to play a major role in the neuroimmune network, through cytokines and other mediators released from secretary innate immune cells. Recent research has revealed that innate immunity has its own memory. This is accomplished by metabolic and epigenetic changes. Such changes may result in augmenting immune protection with a risk of excessive inflammatory responses to subsequent stimuli (trained immunity). Alternatively, innate immune memory can induce suppressive effects (tolerance), which may impose a risk of impaired immune defense. Innate immune memory affects the neuroimmune network for a prolonged period, and dysregulated innate immune memory has been implicated with pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. This chapter summarizes a role of innate immune memory (trained immunity vs. tolerance) in neuroinflammation in association with neuropsychiatric conditions including autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Part of the book: Cytokines