Part of the book: The Mystery of Glaucoma
Part of the book: Neurodegeneration
Part of the book: Glaucoma
The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TNF-α, TNF-β, and IL-10 genes were examined in Saudi subjects including IBD patients (UC and CD) and matched controls. Venous blood samples were collected from IBD patients and healthy control subjects, and genomic DNA was extracted using commercially available kit (Qiagen, CA, USA). In order to detect TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), (-819C/T), and (-592C/A) polymorphisms, the TNF-α, TNF-β, and IL-10 genes were amplified using an amplification refractory mutation systems PCR methodology. Analysis of data showed that the frequencies of alleles and genotype of TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), and IL-10 (-1082G/A), (-819C/T), and (-592C/A) polymorphisms differ between IBD patients and control subjects. Our study clearly indicated that the TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), and IL-10 (-1082 G/A) polymorphisms are associated significantly with the risk of IBD susceptibility while other two, IL-10-819C/T and IL-10-592C/A, polymorphisms are not associated with IBD in Saudi population. However, well-designed epidemiological as well as genetic association studies with large sample size among different ethnicities should be performed in order to have better understanding of this relationship.
Part of the book: New Insights into Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Behçet’s disease (BD) is a complex, multisystemic inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, ocular symptoms, skin lesions, and genital ulcerations. The etiology of BD is not yet clear though various factors including environmental, genetic and immunological ones have been implicated. Genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility and multiple host genetic factors have been suggested to be involved in the development of BD. In addition to the positive association of HLAB*51, recent studies report additional independent associations in the non HLA loci. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various genes including cytokines have been implicated in susceptibility to BD. However, the results are inconsistent and variation are found in several ethnic populations. Therefore, further genetic studies on BD patients of different ethnicity and genes associated with immunity are expected to elucidate BD pathogenesis and will contribute to the development of more targeted therapies and biomarkers.
Part of the book: Cytokines
The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene located on chromosomes 1p 13.3–13 encodes a lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) which is involved in autoimmunity by preventing spontaneous T-cell activation and T-cell development and inactivating T-cell receptor-associated kinases and their substrates. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in PTPN22, but only one PTPN22 C1858T has been intensively studied in relation to autoimmune diseases. The PTPN22 C1858T functional polymorphism is a strong non-HLA risk factor for several autoimmune diseases and considered to play an important role in etiology of diseases due to significant production of autoantibodies. However, available literature on PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism and autoimmune diseases shows inconsistencies and ethnic variations. Therefore, further genetic studies on patients suffering from various autoimmune diseases from different ethnicities and PTPN22 gene polymorphisms are expected to help better understand the pathogenesis and will contribute to the development of more targeted therapies and biomarkers.
Part of the book: The Recent Topics in Genetic Polymorphisms