Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is one of the most extensively studied cytokine with about 19 distinct superfamily members and many more to be found. Prominent among these members is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) that is known to be a potent promoter of inflammation, as well as many normal physiological functions in homeostasis and health and antimicrobial immunity. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) is one of the most important transcription factors that activate transcription of many proinflammatory genes, and the unraveling of TNF-α induced NFκB activation forms the foundation of TNF-α as major cytokine of neuroinflammation. This review discusses summary of literature on unique role of TNF-α in neuroinflammation and various agents that mediate neuroinflammation via TNF-α modulation.
Part of the book: Cytokines