Botulinum toxin injections are effective for hyperactivities of muscles and glands that are mediated by acetylcholine (Ach) release in neuronal terminal. The effects of botulinum toxin are reversible because the involved nerves build new sprouts and synapses with time. Thus, botulinum toxin is relatively safe and repeated applications are needed. To maximize effects of botulinum toxin without side effects, understanding the action mechanism of botulinum toxin and determining appropriate target sites are very important. Many guidelines have already been published and provided useful information for these. Therefore, in this chapter, we concentrate more on practical tips for botulinum toxin injections.
Part of the book: Botulinum Toxin Therapy Manual for Dystonia and Spasticity