José L. S. Pereira
Agrarian School of Viseu, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal; CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
In the last decades increased global environmental concerns to water and soils pollution. The main concerns are related to the contamination of the ecosystem, food security, and human health since many of the contaminants present in soil and water (residues of pesticides and antibiotics, genes of resistance to antibiotics, and heavy metals) are absorbed by plants and enter the food chain. Remediation of the contaminated water and soil to ensure sustainable water supply and food production is urgently needed. The use of biochar can have a positive effect on this remediation process. There are several studies that demonstrate the biochar’s ability to block/reduce the contaminating effect of pesticides, antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes, and heavy metals. The objective of this chapter is to carry out a comprehensive review of the effect of using biochar on the availability/transmission of these contaminants to the soil and food supply chain.
Part of the book: Biodegradation Technology of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants
The use of biochar has been suggested as a promising strategy in bio-waste management and greenhouse gases mitigation. Additionally, its use, as a feed additive, in ruminants has been reported to have contrasting effects on enteric methane production. Hence, this chapter intends to overview the most relevant literature that exploited the use of biochar as a mitigation strategy for methane. This includes the reported effects of biochar on methane production and rumen fermentation observed in in vitro and in vivo assays, as well as manure’s methane emission. The information available about the biochar and the experimental conditions used in the different studies is still limited, which created additional challenges in identifying the biological mechanisms that potentially drive the contrasting results obtained. Nevertheless, it is clear from the current state-of-the-art that biochar may be a key player in the modulation of gut fermentation and in the reduction of greenhouse gases produced by ruminants that need to be consolidated by further research.
Part of the book: Biochar
Broiler housing is a significant source of airborne pollutants from animal production, which lead to degradation of indoor air quality and outdoor emissions, particularly ammonia, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide, odours and particulate matter. In this chapter, we first analyse the current state of the art on the consequences of these pollutants on broiler farming, farm workers, and the environment. This includes the factors affecting pollutants generation, quantification, and mitigation measures suppressing airborne pollutants. Next, we describe different best available techniques for environmental protection and sustainability of broiler production, namely feeds and feeding management, feed supplements, bedding management and treatment of exhaust air. Thus, broiler farms should select mitigation strategies based on several considerations, such as location, climate conditions, environmental policies and financial resources.
Part of the book: Air Pollution