Leishmania spp. release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing parasite molecules, including several antigens and virulence factors. These EVs can interact with the host cells, such as immune cells, contributing to the parasite–host relationship. Studies have demonstrated that Leishmania-EVs can promote infection in experimental models and modulate the immune response. Although the immunomodulatory effect has been demonstrated, Leishmania-EVs can deliver parasite antigens and therefore have the potential for use as a new diagnostic tool and development of new therapeutic and vaccine approaches. This review aims to bring significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles and Leishmania, focusing on their role in the cells of the immune system.
Part of the book: Leishmaniasis