Oral cancer is a frequent head and neck cancer in developing countries and some developed world. According to the World Health Organization classification 2017, oral cancer influences the anatomical subsites including buccal mucosa, the anterior two-third of the tongue, lip, palate, vestibule, alveolus, floor of the mouth, and gingivae. A variety of premalignant lesions are related with the development of oral cancer, such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, et al. The predominant histological type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco and alcohol consumption are regarded as critical etiological factors. Due to the unspecific symptoms in early stage, the majority are diagnosed in advanced stages. Despite the development of medicine over decades, the mortality rate of oral cancer remains high, indicating the importance of optimized treatment and screening strategies.
Part of the book: Pharynx