Between 30 and 50% of the world population is permanently colonized in some anatomical site by Staphylococcus aureus, although the vast majority are asymptomatic carriers. The nose is its main niche and currently the colonization of S. aureus in the pharynx has become relevant due to the variety of reported carrier rates and the epidemiological importance of the dissemination of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) by pharyngeal carriers. For this bacterium to colonize a tissue successfully, it is necessary to establish many interactions with bacterial and host cell components such as bacterial wall teichoic acids (WTA) with the Scavenger SREC-1 host receptor and at the same time evade the defense mechanisms. On the other hand, there are host factors that will facilitate or complicate the colonization or persistence of S. aureus at these sites, such as physiological, genetic, immunological and microbiological factors.
Part of the book: Pharynx
Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that can colonize the nose, pharynx, and other regions of the body. It has also been observed that it can cause persistence. Successful colonization of S. aureus depends in the factors that favor the interaction of the bacteria with host cells. The bacterial determinants of S. aureus that have the capacity to adhere to human tissues involve adhesion factors such as teichoic acids and cell-wall-anchored proteins (CWA) such as ClfA, IcaA, SdrC, FnBPA, among others. The colonization and persistence process first involve adhesion to the tissue, followed by its reproduction and the possible formation of a biofilm. This review will describe the main virulence factors that allow bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, including the accessory gene regulator genes (agr), related to colonization and persistence of S. aureus.
Part of the book: Staphylococcal Infections