Many changes have arisen in the world of display technologies as time has passed. In the vast area of display technology, Organic light-emitting diode is a recent and exciting discovery. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received a lot of curiosity among the researcher in recent years as the next generation of lighting and displays due to their numerous advantages, such as superior efficiency, mechanical flexibility and stability, chemical versatility, ease of fabrication, and so on. It works on the theory of electroluminescence, which is a mechanism in which electrical energy converts to light energy. Organic LEDs have a thickness of 100 to 500 nanometers or 200 times that of human hair. In OLEDs, organic material can be used in two or three layers. The emissive layer plays a key role in OLEDs. Polymers are used in the emissive layer to enhance the efficiency of OLEDs at the same time self-luminescence materials are used in OLEDs. In displays, this self-illuminating property removes the need for backlighting. Compared to LEDs and LCDs, OLED displays are smaller, lighter, and more portable.
Part of the book: Light-Emitting Diodes and Photodetectors
The long lasting intrinsic conducting polymers (ICPs) including polyaniline (PANI), polypyrole (PPy), Polyindole (PIn), Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Polythiophene (PT), poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been recognized for their significant benefits in optoelectronic devices. In the last few decades, polyaniline has gained recognition over metals, owing its low cost, flexibility, and high conductivity, as well as the ease with which it may be produced using chemical or electrochemical processes. Due to its high electrical conductivity, light weight, ease of fabrication, and excellent environmental stability, PANI has an extensive range of applications, including batteries, sensors, supercapacitors, waste water treatment and organic electronic devices. It also has the potential for chemical and electrochemical synthesis. Polyaniline has promising potential in many optoelectronic applications as well as in supercapacitors. In this chapter, the basic historical background, different synthesis mechanism about conducting polymer polyaniline is discussed in details. Polyaniline has great potential application such as in sensors, supercapacitor and optoelectronic devices etc. due to its ability of ease of synthesis by various methods. Polyaniline based nanocomposites with different metals, metal oxide, metal sulfides, and carbon nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) etc. are described in this section in detail.
Part of the book: Trends and Developments in Modern Applications of Polyaniline