III-Nitride-based heterostructures are well suited for the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes (LDs), high-power/high-frequency field-effect transistors (FETs), and tandem solar cells because of their inherent properties. However, the heterostructures grown along polar direction are affected by the presence of internal electric field induced by the existence of intrinsic spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. The internal electric field is deleterious for optoelectronic devices as it causes a spatial separation of electron and hole wave functions in the quantum wells, which thereby decreases the emission efficiency. The growth of III-nitride heterostructures in nonpolar or semipolar directions is an alternative option to minimize the piezoelectric polarization. The heterostructures grown on these orientations are receiving a lot of focus due to their potential improvement on the efficiency of optoelectronic devices. In the present chapter, the growth of polar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and their characterizations are discussed. The transport properties of the III-nitride heterostructure-based Schottky junctions are also included. In addition, their applications toward UV and IR detectors are discussed.
Part of the book: Epitaxy
In the last few decades, there has been a phenomenal rise and evolution in the field of III–Nitride semiconductors for optoelectronic applications such as lasers, sensors and detectors. However, certain hurdles still remain in the path of designing high-performance photodetectors (PDs) based on III-Nitride semiconductors considering their device performance. Recently, a lot of progress has been achieved in devices based on the high quality epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Being an ultra-high vacuum environment based-technique, MBE has enabled the realization of high-quality and highly efficient PDs which have exhibited competitive figures of merit to that of the commercial PDs. Moreover, by combining the novel properties of 2D materials with MBE-grown III-Nitrides, devices with enhanced functionalities have been realized which would pave a way towards the next-generation photonics. In the current chapter, the basic concepts about photodetection have been presented in detail, followed by a discussion on the basic properties of the III-Nitride semiconductors, and the recent advancements in the field of MBE-grown III-Nitrides-based PDs, with an emphasis on their hybrid structures. Finally, an outlook has been provided highlighting the present shortcomings as well as the unresolved issues associated with the present-day devices in this emerging field of research.
Part of the book: Light-Emitting Diodes and Photodetectors