The consumption of nuts as part of a healthy diet and active lifestyle has long been associated with chronic disease prevention. Nuts and their coproducts such as oil, cake, plant-based milk substitutes, flour, and shell are rich in lipids, proteins, phenolics, and other bioactive compounds. Nut flour also presents interesting physical properties, such as water or oil holding capacity, foam properties, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. These biological and physical properties make these products commercially attractive as organic ingredients in several foods such as spreads, bakery products, and cereal bars. In this chapter, the nutritional and bioactive profiles, as well as the evidenced health-promoting effects of nuts originating from Brazil, will be discussed. The focus will be on commercial nuts such as cashews, pecan, and Brazil nuts, along with some underexplored and relatively unknown indigenous species, such as sapucaia, chichá, monguba, and pracaxi. The knowledge of these Brazilian native nuts and their coproducts is important for stimulating their consumption among the population and their large-scale commercialization.