Soybean is an important source of protein and amino acids for humans and livestock because of its well-balanced amino acid profile. This chapter outlines the strengths and weaknesses of soybean as a complete amino acid source as well as the relative importance of individual amino acids. Special attention is paid to the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Breeding and genetic engineering efforts are summarized to highlight previous accomplishments in amino acid improvement and potential avenues for future research. Agronomic properties and processing methods that affect amino acid levels in soybean food and feed are also explained. A brief introduction into current amino acid evaluation techniques is provided. By understanding the complexities of amino acids in soybean, protein quality for humans and livestock can be maximized.
Part of the book: Soybean for Human Consumption and Animal Feed
Soybean is one of the most widely planted and used legumes in the world due to its valuable seed composition. The many significant agronomic practices that are utilized in soybean production are highlighted with an emphasis on those used during the pregrowing season and growing season. The various pests of soybeans and the pest management strategies used to control them are described with special attention to insects, weeds, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. The multitude of soybean uses for livestock and human consumption, and its industrial uses are discussed in this chapter. Additionally, the conventional breeding and genetic engineering attempts to improve soybean protein, oil, and sucrose content as well as eliminate the antinutritional factors, such as trypsin inhibitors, raffinose, stachyose, and phytate, are examined. In this chapter, the various management practices, uses, and breeding efforts of soybean will be discussed.
Part of the book: Legume Crops
Vegetable soybean or edamame is a specialty soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Unlike grain-type soybean (mainly for oil and source of protein in animal feeds), edamame pods are harvested at a green and immature stage, and beans are consumed by humans as a vegetable. While originally from China, edamame has recently gained much-increased popularity and expanded market needs in the US. However, domestic edamame production is limited in the US because at least 70% of the edamame consumed is imported. Poor seed germination and seedling emergence are one of the major problems in US edamame production. This review focuses on the introduction of edamame, a high-value niche crop, and its low emergence issue in production. Here, we provide a comprehensive exploration of the factors that influence edamame germination and emergence, including the intrinsic factors related to seeds (seed and seedling characteristics), and extrinsic factors related to the biotic (soil/seed-borne diseases) and abiotic (seedbed physical components as well as their interaction with climate) stresses. This information will help farmers and plant breeders to better understand the causes of the poor edamame emergence and may provide a foundation for improved field management of edamame, to increase production of this valuable specialty crop.
Part of the book: Legumes Research