An environmentally friendly, economic synthetic protocol was advanced for synthesis of biologically and pharmacologically vital five- and six-membered heterocycles containing nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen as heteroatom. A series of thiazole derivatives was prepared by the reaction of substituted phenacyl halides and phenyl thiourea in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as nanocatalyst in DCM. Similarly, another series of six-membered heterocyclic compounds were synthesized by the reaction of phenacyl halides with phenylenediamine, 2-aminophenol, 2-aminobenzenethiol to produce corresponding products (1,4-quinoxaline, benzoxazine, benzothiazine) under catalytic effect of TiO2nanocatalyst. Analytical and spectral (FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR and SEM) techniques were employed for the structural elucidation of the synthesized compounds.
Part of the book: Heterocycles
Recently, the use of green methodologies like sonication, use of ionic liquids, etc. attracted the attention of researchers in the field of organic synthesis as they have advantages such as mild reaction conditions, environmentally benign procedures, etc. Herein, this chapter highlights some recyclable ionic liquids (ILs) catalyzed ring closure reactions of chalcones to obtain several heterocyclic rings viz.; pyrazoles, pyrans, pyrimidines under ultrasonification. These reactions have very important features i.e., short routine, high yields, being environmentally friendly, high functional group tolerance, formation of a single product, high atom economy, high yielding, no need for column purification, etc. The various synthesized compounds were prepared in optimized reaction conditions in good to efficient yields. Analytical and spectral (FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR) techniques were employed for the structural elucidation of the synthesized compounds. The ionic liquids used in the synthesis are recycled and reused several times.
Part of the book: Green Chemistry