Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is economically most important crop of Vigna group. It is also known as green gram, golden gram, moong, Chickasaw, Oregon pea, and chop suey bean and this legumes have a strategic position in Southeast Asian countries for nutritional security and sustainable crop production. Being rich in quality protein, minerals and vitamins, they are inseparable ingredients in the diets of a vast majority of Indian population. When supplemented with cereals, they provide a perfect mix of essential amino acids with high biological value. These crops have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (58–109 kg per ha in kg per ha mungbean) in symbiotic association with Rhizobium bacteria, which enables them to meet their own nitrogen requirement and also benefit the succeeding crops. This crop has also been reported to smother weed flora appreciably (20–45%) when intercropped with tall cereals or pigeonpea and consequently, minimize the cost incurred on weed control. On account of short duration and photo-thermo insensitivity, they are considered excellent crops for crop intensification and diversification. A seed of mungbean is highly nutritious containing 24–28% protein, 1.0–1.5% fat, 3.5–4.5% fibre, 4.5–5.5% ash and 59–65% carbohydrates on dry weight basis and provide 334–344 kcal energy. Mungbean protein is considered to be easily digestible. Mungbean are tropical grain legumes widely grown in the sub-tropical countries of South and Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, these crops are cultivated over a wide range of latitudes in the regions where average diurnal temperatures during the growing season are warmer than about 20°C.
Part of the book: Legume Crops
Rice is the predominant crop in India and is the staple food in eastern and southern Indian populations. One of the oldest grown crops is rice. The initial discovery of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) three-line system made it possible to produce hybrids that significantly increase rice yields compared to its inbred counterparts. Further genetic and molecular studies help elucidate the mechanisms involved in CMS male sterility. Additional CMS types were also discovered with similar genetic control from wild sources by interspecific hybridization. In India more than 1200 varieties were released for cultivation suitable different ecosystems and out of them 128 varieties have been contributed from NRRI, Cuttack. A list of these varieties are furnished below with their duration, grain type, yield potential, reaction to major disease and insects grain quality and tolerance to different adverse situations. Recent advances in molecular approaches used in modern rice breeding include molecular marker technology and marker-assisted selection (MAS); molecular mapping of genes and QTLs and production of hybrids and alien introgression lines (AILs). Genomic selection (GS) has been projected as alternative to conventional MAS. GS has huge potential to enhance breeding efficiency by increasing gain per selection per unit time. Due to the adaptation of semi dwarf high yielding varieties, combined with intensive input management practices, the country witnessed an impressive rice production growth in the post-independent period. Rice production was increased four times, productivity three times while the area increase was only one and half times during this period. The projected rice requirement by 2025, in order to keep up with increasing population, is about 130 m.t. The challenge of growing rice production is made more difficult by declining trends in HYV’s yields, decreasing and degrading natural resources such as land and water and a severe labour shortage.
Part of the book: Cereal Grains