Antimicrobial compounds are food additives, which play a major role to reduce food spoilage. There are three main groups of antimicrobial compounds such as chemical agent, natural extract, and probiotics. The direct incorporations of the active compounds on the surface of food may have limited benefit because they are rapidly diffused from the food surface into the food product, resulting in the limited efficacy of these compounds. Thus, incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into packaging matrix, especially biopolymer film is a promising technique to reduce contaminations and inhibit, retard, and/or kill the microorganisms. Edible films are thin layer of natural polymers used to maintain the physicochemical quality of foods and extend their shelf life. A variety of biopolymeric-based materials including polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids have been extensively used for antimicrobial packaging and can be used as a carrier of active compounds. Incorporation of antimicrobial compounds may or may not enhance the mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of biopolymer films. The applications of active films can reduce contamination through the releasing of antimicrobial compound, thus reducing the risk from pathogen, extending shelf life of the packaged foods, and providing better quality with high safety.
Part of the book: Active Antimicrobial Food Packaging
By-products originating from agricultural and food processing are considerable disposal problem for the industry because these waste streams emerge in huge quantities and often have direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution. However, at the same time, it constitute a rich but yet underutilized source of valuable components, which may find application as ingredients in the food and non-food industries. As a result, numerous projects are currently directed toward the utilization of agricultural and food processing by-products such as animal-based (skin, bone, flesh, and internal organs) and plant-based biomaterials (fruit peels and seeds, rice bran, and etc.). In the present work, we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current research of the compounds and extracts deriving from agro-industrial disposable wastes in the food-related utilization. The potential of selected by-products as a source of bioactive/functional compounds in terms of emerging and conventional techniques for extraction, characterization, biological activity monitoring and application of the extracts or isolated compounds as functional food ingredients or bio-based materials for food packaging are highlighted. Considering environmental effect and economic loss, agricultural and food processing by-products should be utilized in various innovative processes in the cause of beneficial product derivation.
Part of the book: Food Waste as a Resource