Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are still a major cause of mortality worldwide and are a serious health problem. Various factors that contribute toward CVDs include hypertension, tobacco use, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, obesity and overweight, alcohol, dietary factors and psychosocial aspects such as stress, anxiety and depression. Nutraceuticals and diet are very important for prevention of CVDs. The potential of nutraceuticals or functional food in mitigating risk of CVDs is discussed. Functional food with health related properties include fruit and vegetable, fish, legumes, nuts, soya protein, coffee, tea, chocolate, animal based functional food. In addition, some diet plans have shown the potential of reducing the incidence of CVDs. This includes the Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Okinawan and vegetarian diets. This chapter examines the risk factors of CVDs, including hypertension, tobacco usage, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity. The chapter also brings to the fore, functional foods with properties related to health and effect of dietary patterns in the treatment and prevention of CVDs.
Part of the book: Functional Foods
Millets are small to medium size cereal grain crops that are cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropical region. The grains are used for food and fodder for feeding animals around the globe. Millets have great economic, health importance, gluten-free, have low glycemic index and are known as “nutra–cereals”. The grains are mostly utilised as a food source by population with lower socio-economic factors which are traditional consumers in the farm and village levels. They are rich sources of carbohydrates, protein, crude fibre, phytochemicals, minerals, and vitamins. They are processed by using different traditional processes such as soaking, germination, malting, fermentation, milling or grinding, cooking, roasting and popping. Millet grains/ flours are utilised and consumed as flat breads, biscuits, snacks, beverages, porridges, chapati, dosa, pastas. There is a need to produce new value-added products from millets which is underutilised crop to improve food security and prevent micronutrients deficiencies.
Part of the book: Cereal Grains