Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables is positively correlated with reduction in age-related eye diseases, atherosclerosis, certain cancers and chronic diseases. Carotenoids consist of unique chemical characteristics and are highly vulnerable to structural modifications, leading to the formation of various derivatives under physiological conditions. The identification of these molecules is necessary before addressing their biological functions. Carotenoid metabolomics is believed to be highly complex to fingerprint due to instability and interference with complex biological matrices. Noteworthy, progress has been made in understanding carotenoid metabolism or its biotransformation in biological samples. In this regard, the chapter highlights the concept of metabolomics and their related bio-analytical techniques pertaining to the detection of carotenoids and their derived products to elucidate their bio-transformation on targeted biological functions. Further, this chapter highlights the various hyphenated analytical tools and their optimization.
Part of the book: Metabolomics
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly evolving and a critical public health concern, raising the likelihood of liver cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiac problems. Existing epidemics of obesity and sedentary life style have lead to NAFLD’s elevated prevalence. In recent years there is profound change in the diet pattern, particularly the hypercaloric fat and carbohydrates for preventing or treating chronic liver disorders such as NASH and NAFLD. Functional and nutritional foods have contributed significantly to NAFLDimprovement and management. The justification for exploring functional foods as anti-NAFLD candidates for the chronic liver disease prevention is derived knowledge from in vitro and in vivo models. The findings from the in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that these compounds are healthy, efficient, reversible inhibitors, when sufficiently consumed over a lifetime without severe toxicity, suitable for clinical trials and potentially becoming low-cost medication.
Part of the book: Functional Foods