We aimed to identify metabolic disorders associated with insulin resistance (IR) in Congolese women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Fifty‐four PCOS women and 40 controls from three hospitals of Kinshasa were enrolled to our case‐control study. Blood samples were collected, and concentrations of high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), fasting insulin, and glucose levels were measured. IR under basal conditions was evaluated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA‐IR). Dyslipidemia was observed in 37.5 controls and 55.6% PCOS women (p < 0.05). The two main lipoproteins concerned were HDL and LDL; nevertheless, the difference in LDL levels between PCOS and controls was not significant. Higher TG (>150 mg/dl) was not found in the two groups, whereas TG levels in PCOS patients were significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.05). Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and metabolic syndrome were observed, respectively, in 1.9% of PCOS patients. Insulin resistance is associated with metabolic disorders in Congolese woman with PCOS. Dyslipidemia (55.6%), mainly due to low HDL levels, is the most common metabolic disorder. Impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome represent a small proportion.
Part of the book: Testes and Ovaries
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a selenoprotein with biological properties that allow the detoxification of endogenous or exogenous reactive oxygen species as well as the elimination of xenobiotic compounds in the cells. Due to its isoform activities and pathophysiological functions, GPx holds the status of a redox system (GSH/GSSG) in the glutathione (GSH) system to prevent oxidative damage of cellular constituents. As such, the GPx is the first line of defense against free radicals. Its deficiency causes oxidative stress that not only promotes the oxidation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) but also leads to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and metabolic alterations, which expose to high risk for cardiometabolic disorders due to cardiovascular and degenerative diseases especially when associated with aging. This work presents a review of different studies done on the localization of GPx in subcellular organelles, activity changes during cellular aging, their effects on cardiometabolic risks, and associated diseases.
Part of the book: Glutathione System and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease
Oxidative stress, characterized by excessive production of reactive species, is involved in several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, chronic obstructive pulmonary, sickle cell, chronic kidney, neurodegenerative, and cancer. The negative impact of ROS and RNS, produced by endogenous and exogenous processes, is neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Given the importance of oxidative stress to human health, the use of antioxidants as therapy directs medical research toward the specificity of antioxidants causing each disease. Fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants, such as nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and phytoceuticals, the consumption of which reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. Flora of African countries is endowed with plant species that would make a putative source for new antioxidants. This article reports antioxidant activities of traditional foods from Democratic Republic of the Congo. Further studies are needed to ensure mechanisms of their functionality in the human body.
Part of the book: Recent Developments in Antioxidants from Natural Sources