In addition to humans’ thermal comfort, air-conditioning (AC) could be required for various nonhuman applications, for example, animals’ AC, greenhouse AC, food storage and transportation, industrial processes, and so on. In this regard, optimum conditions of air temperature and humidity are explored and compared on psychrometric charts. Thermodynamic limitations of existing AC systems are discussed from the subject point of view. Consequently, four kinds of low-cost energy-efficient AC systems, namely: (i) direct evaporative cooling (DEC), (ii) indirect evaporative cooling (IEC), (iii) Maisotsenko cycle (M-Cycle) evaporative cooling (MEC), and (iv) desiccant AC (DAC), are investigated for climatic conditions of two cities, that is, Multan (Pakistan) and Fukuoka (Japan). In addition, systems’ fundamentals and principles are explained by means of schematic diagrams and basic heat/mass transfer relationships. According to the results, performance of all systems is influenced by ambient air conditions; therefore, a particular AC system cannot provide optimum AC for all nonhuman applications. However, one or other AC system can successfully provide desired conditions of temperature and relative humidity. It has been concluded that evaporative cooling systems provide low-cost AC for dry climates, whereas DAC system is found energy efficient and viable for humid climates.
Part of the book: Refrigeration