In the context of miniaturization of devices, ferroelectric materials are used as multifunctional materials for their well-known intrinsic properties, especially for the switching of polarization in an applied electric field. The high-quality epitaxial thin film structures are used for the possibility to study different effects as low dimensions, interface, strain and strain gradients on ferroelectric materials and other electric characteristics, also representing a possibility to obtain new phenomena and properties that can be used for development of new devices with different functionalities. This chapter is a summary of the ferroelectric and dielectric behaviour of epitaxial thin films of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) and BaTiO3 (BTO) obtained by pulsed laser deposition and the correlation with structural quality of the layers and with different electrostatic conditions induced either by electrodes or by the different interlayers. For this purpose in the first part, studies regarding the influence of the substrates and of different top electrodes are performed for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) 52/48. In the second part, we focused on artificial multiferroic structures from alternating layers of PZT 20/80 or BaTiO3 (BTO) as ferroelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as magnetic material. We found that interface configuration and strain engineering could control ferroelectric hysteresis, the capacitance or the leakage current magnitude.
Part of the book: Epitaxy
Tungsten and tungsten nanoparticles are involved in a series of processes, in nanotechnology, metallurgy, and fusion technology. Apart from chemical methods, nanoparticle synthesis by plasma offers advantages as good control of size, shape, and surface chemistry. The plasma methods are also environmentally friendly. In this chapter, we present aspects related to the magnetron sputtering gas aggregation (MSGA) process applied to synthesis of tungsten nanoparticles, with size in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. We present the MSGA process and its peculiarities in the case of tungsten nanoparticle synthesis. The properties of the obtained particles with a focus on the influence of the process parameters over the particle production rate, their size, morphology, and structure are discussed. To the end, we emphasize the utility of such particles for assessing the environmental and biological impacts in case of using tungsten as wall material in thermonuclear fusion reactors.
Part of the book: Progress in Fine Particle Plasmas