The growth in food demand and production growth of vegetables have led to the development of intensive production systems with the aim of having regular access to enough high‐quality food. The aim is to determine the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh lettuce by PCR in order to enhance the efficiency for detection and identification process. The Baird‐Parker method was used for isolating pathogens from 54 lettuce samples. Genomic DNA extraction was performed according the Mericon DNA Bacteria Plus Kit. The detection by PCR was performed using the pair of primers: coa gene (5′‐ATAGAGCTGATGGTACAGG‐3′ and 5′‐GCTTCCGATTGTTCGATGC‐3′). The phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing conserved sequences from the adjacent 16S gene, using the F2C 5′‐AGAGTTTGATCATGGCTC‐3′ and C 5′‐ACGGGCGGTGTGTAC‐3′ primers. To test the antimicrobial effect, we used the disk diffusion method (Kirby‐Bauer) using Mueller‐Hinton agar and five antibiotics with different concentrations. The incidence of S. aureus was 1.7%. All the isolates were situated in the ATCC 11632 clade in accordance with other reported sequences belonging to this pathogen in the NCBI database. All the isolates seemed to be resistant to penicillin (10U). The molecular techniques used in this study are suitable for the identification of S. aureus isolated from lettuce, increasing our capability of detecting this pathogen by improving the process and increasing the efficiency contributing to the safety of this vegetable.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Staphylococcus aureus
Healthy human skin has beneficial microflora and many pathogens causing infections. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent and can have multiresistance to antibiotics. Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, which is biodegradable and has antimicrobial activity. As part of a national scientific research project for the development and application of biomaterials, we decided to study the effect of different membranes based on chitosan against strains of S. aureus isolated from infected ulcers. The study found that seven of nine strains of S. aureus are sensitive to rifampin and the least eight of nine strains were multiresistant to more than ten antibiotics. All chitosan-based membranes confirm its antimicrobial effect on direct contact with an increase in its diameter. The contact area of the membranes is increased according to the concentration of chitosan. The highest average area increase was the chitosan membranes with honey and glycerin, 88.32%. Chitosan membranes have shown their effectiveness against S. aureus strains of clinical origin. Thus, these materials can be applied for the treatment of chronic ulcers without toxic hazards and resistance caused by antibiotics.
Part of the book: The Rise of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
The development of new strategies for wound healing has resulted in the design of biomedical devices using polymers of natural origin. Hydrogels are biomaterials formed by three-dimensional polymeric networks that can retain large amounts of water or biological fluids, and smooth texture similar to living tissue. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide, (1-4)-2-amino-2deoxy-ß-D-glucan, which has desirable features such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity, hemostasis and antibacterial character. Xyloglucans have different applications in tissue engineering for their physicochemical properties, biocompatibility and control of cell expansion. Hydrogels had been made of homogeneous mixtures prepared of chitosan and purified xyloglucan, followed by a freeze-drying process to develop a flexible and porous structure. Additionally, their mechanical properties such as porosity, solubility, biodegradation, and the antibacterial activity of the hydrogels are studied. The results suggest that the incorporation of xyloglucan favors the characteristics from chitosan-based hydrogels, providing a promising alternative for application in biomaterials with antimicrobial activity.
Part of the book: Chitin-Chitosan
Collagen is a natural polymer widely used in pharmaceutical products and nutritional supplement due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen is a fibrous protein that supports various tissues, and its primary structure is formed by repeated units of glycine-proline-hydroxyproline. Traditional sources of collagen, such as bovine and pig skins or chicken waste, limit their use due to the dangers of animal-borne diseases. Thus, marine animals are an alternative for the extraction of collagen. The common name of Oreochromis aureus is tilapia, widely cultivated for sale as frozen fillets. During its processing, a large amount of collagen-rich wastes are generated. Therefore, the objective of this book chapter is to prove the potential of tilapia skin as an alternative source of collagen for the elaboration of biomaterials. Additionally to the literature review, experimental results of the extraction and characterization of tilapia skin collagen for use in medical dressings are presented.
Part of the book: Seaweed Biomaterials