Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are important human and veterinary pathogens. A crucial characteristic for this group of bacteria is that they can easily acquire mechanisms of antibiotic resistance for a plethora of antibiotics currently in use for human and animal therapies. Therefore, there is a great need to find novel, non-antibiotic chemotherapeutics with marked antistaphylococcal activity. Promising but still underestimated group of potential antistaphylococcal chemotherapeutics constitute bee products: honey, pollen, royal jelly, fermented pollen and especially propolis. Another group of natural products that exhibit promising antibacterial activity is essential oils. Usefulness of bee products and essential oils in the treatment of infections caused by S. aureus has been confirmed by results of many investigations carried out by researches in different regions of the world. In this chapter, we have presented the review of publication in this area as well as perspectives and limitations of future applications of these two groups of natural products.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Staphylococcus aureus
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most frequent bacterial infections. Escherichia coli is the major factor of community-acquired UTI (80–90%) and a large part of nosocomial UTI (30%), including cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) shows a variety of virulence factors that allow their transition from the intestinal tract to the urinary tract and causing infection. The virulence factors responsible for pathogenesis outside the gastrointestinal tract belong to various functional groups. Antimicrobial resistance among E. coli causing UTIs is increasing in many countries around the world. This paper presents key virulence factors of UPEC such as adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and biofilm formation by UPEC, which are major problems in patients with long-term catheterization. The resistance of UPEC to antibiotics and innovative strategies of treatment and control of UPEC including drug therapy, preventive vaccines, probiotics, cranberry as source of antimicrobial metabolites, bacteriophages, new therapeutic antibiofilm treatment such as engineered phages, nanoparticles, and plant-derived antibacterial agents are also presented.
Part of the book: Escherichia coli