Interest in alternative protein sources to those derived from animal, soy and wheat is on the rise, as consumers are searching for lower cost, healthier alternatives without compromising product quality and safety. Pulses are rich in protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals and are low in fat. Although pea proteins experience greater integration into the plant protein ingredient market than others, lentil, chickpea, bean and faba beans are not far behind. This review discusses approaches used for extracting pulse proteins used to produce protein products (concentrates/isolates), mechanism driving structure-function relationships as well as potential applications.
Part of the book: Grain Legumes
The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 addition (3%, flour wt. basis) on the properties of dough made from two Canadian Western Red Spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Harvest’ and ‘Pembina’) differing in dough mixing requirements and dough-handling properties was investigated in a low salt dough formulation (1% NaCl, flour wt. basis). PEG was added for experimental purposes to alter water mobility to better understand underlining mechanisms, however would not be used in real bread formulations. For cultivar Harvest, but not Pembina, dough stickiness was reduced by the addition of PEG. Dough freezable water content decreased with the addition of PEG for both cultivars. Rheological measurements showed that PEG increased dough stiffness as measured by the complex modulus |G*|. Creep measurements indicated that the relative elastic component (Jel) increased whereas maximum deformation (Jmax) decreased with the addition of PEG for cultivar Harvest only. Dough made with a weaker cultivar (Harvest) with the addition of PEG performed similarly to dough made with a stronger cultivar (Pembina) without PEG. Results indicate that in a low sodium environment, availability of water is critically important for controlling a number of properties that relate closely to dough machinability, especially in a weaker wheat cultivar.
Part of the book: Food Processing