Marcus E. B. Fernandes is Professor of Ecology at the Federal University of Pará, in Bragança, Brazil. He did his undergraduate degree at the Federal University of Amazonas, Brazil, in 1985, a Masters degree in Experimental Psychology from the University of São Paulo - Brazil, in 1989, followed by a DPhil project on the ecology and productivity of mangroves in the Brazilian Amazon region at the University of York, England, in 1998. From 1998 to 2001 he worked as a Lecturer at the Federal University of Maranhão, Eastern Brazilian Amazon, concentrating on distribution and structural features of mangrove and cerrado tree species. In 2002, he moved to the Federal University of Pará, where he focused on forest productivity and the occurrence and the habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna. His interest in how people have and are using mangroves on a traditional basis was expanded to social and economic valuation of mangrove´s resources and its services on the Brazilian Amazon coast.