The application of AuNPs on the infected barley cultivar had great damage results on Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV-PAV) particles in TEM. Observation of TEM images provided an insight into the transport of AuNPs through the plasmodesmata endoplasmic reticulum route, where they likely accumulated as the channels narrowed. The cytoplasmic parenchyma cell components do not have an intact peripheral location, but taking irregular shapes, internal movement between adjacent two cells seems to be the VLPs moved toward via plasmodesmata. TEM micrographs; showing different abnormalities in the cell wall due to viral infection. Application of AuNPs revealed sticky Integrated AuNPs inside the cell wall with low and high density. The mechanical transportation of the virus through the sieve elements with endosomes was observed. The mechanical transportation of virus particles through the cell wall with some vesicles, amorphous inclusions, and filamentous particles was proved through the sieve elements with filamentous strands.
- cell wall
- Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV-PAV)
- Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)
- parenchyma cells
- low density of AuNPs
- AuNPs with high density
- auNPs with high density
- twisted cell wall
- proteinous contents
- amorphous inclusions
- mechanical transportation
- filamentous particles
- sieve elements
The phloem-limited virus not only causes damage to the phloem and associated plasmodesmata  but also produces viral proteins that influence plasmodesmata structure to allow the passage of viral genomes or virus particlesFigure 1. Compared to Figure 2 of healthy cells. For example, the TMV MP accumulates in plasmodesmata and alters the size exclusion limit of the channel . The application of AuNPs on the barley cultivar had great damage results on virus in TEM. The interaction performance in our plates in Figures 3 and 4 had different degrees between VLPs and AuNPs, illustrated as clotting, surrounding, integration, and accumulation particles. AuNPs with sticky and low density in Figure 3(A)–(D) and with high dark density inside the twisted cell wall in Figure 4(A)–(F). The DNA AuNPs can bind to the strand upon entry to the cell’s cytoplasm, preventing translation of the mRNAs corresponding protein. As found in Figure 5(A) and (B), which pronounced many filamentous strands bind with AuNPs crossing the cell wall, that could have the same influence . Outside of medical technology, the deployment of gold nanoparticles in photovoltaics by embedding them into thin solar cells has increase solar energy conversion efficiencies. The mechanism of AuNPs inside the plant was illustrated . It was recorded that the formation of Nanoparticles still needs more clarification, whether they are created outside and then translocated to plants or whether they are formed by the reduction of metal salts within the plants themselves. The uptake of Nanoparticles and translocation across root cells, in which several active and passive transport processes involved, depends on the type of metal ions and plant species, Figure 5(A),(B),(E), and (L). The amount of Nanoparticle accumulation in plants also varies with the reduction potential of ions and the lowering capacity of plants that depends on the presence of various polyphenols and other heterocyclic compounds present in plants, as shown in Figure 3(C) and (D)  that sieving properties are determined by the pore diameter of cell wall ranging from 5 to 20 nm Figure 5(L).
2. Nanoparticles, interalization and transportation inside the cell wall
During endocytosis, further internalization occurs with a cavity-like structure that forms around the nanoparticles by the plasma membrane. They may, besides, cross the membrane using embedded transport carrier proteins or through ion channels. A band of AuNPs surrounded the cell adjacent and inside the cell wall, as Figure 5(C).
Nuclear Localization Signal Peptide, NLS peptide, is a virus-derived protein fragment  that interacts with intracellular proteins for transport across the nuclear envelope. Interpreted that NLS peptides to the DNA AuNP did alter the intercellular localization of the AuNPs  but did not change the binding properties of the oligonucleotides (Figure 5(I),(K) and (M).
Two-photon excitation microscopy was used to monitor MWCNTs piercing the cell wall of wheat roots and reaching the cytoplasm  without totally entering the cell. After root uptake and penetration of the epidermal cells of Engineered nanomaterials ENMs, transport demand circulation across the root and the xylem. ENMs transported through cell wall pores, the apoplastic pathway, or the symplastic pathway through plasmodesmata, channels that connect neighboring cells around 40 nm in diameter . The uptake and translocation of ENMs in plants are not only related to the particle composition, size, shape, surface properties, but also the type of plant species. Positively charged AuNPs were most readily taken up by plant roots , while negatively charged AuNPs most efficiently translocated into stems and leaves from the roots. Higher amounts of the AuNPs accumulated in Radish and ryegrass roots generally than rice and pumpkin roots, as we found in wheat in our study. Utilized AuNPs in that study aggregated to statistically considerable extents in rice shoots; however, none of them depleted in the shoots of radishes and pumpkins. Near, the tissue scale uptake and locative distribution NPs in rice roots and shoots were influenced by the surface charges of Au NPs . Au concentration in rice roots followed the order of AuNP (+) > AuNP (0) > AuNP (−) but with the reversed order for shoots, indicating preferential translocation of negatively charged Au NPs. AuNPs in the xylem within the leaves indicated that the NPS was transported during nutrients and water uptake .
Direct penetration of NPS through the cell wall can be envisioned for smaller-size NPS as the pore size on the cell wall (2–20 nm) may limit the passage to the NPs more significant than 20 nm . Furthermore, the cell membrane acts as yet another barrier for an extraneous agent to pass through. To test this hypothesis,  investigated uptake and distribution of 3.5 nm or 18 nm-sized citrate-coated AuNPs in tobacco (Nicotiana Xanthi), where the authors observed uptake of Au only from 3.5 nm AuNPs treatments , distinct with 18 nm-sized AuNPs treatments, and the larger-sized particles adhered to tobacco root surfaces. Also, exposure to 3.5 nm-sized AuNPs resulted in leaf necrosis sustain in plant death. It did not occur with 18 nm AuNPs treatments . On the other hand, a size threshold may happen for NPS translocation to the leaves, which they mentioned to be <36 nm; meanwhile, the accumulation of TiO2NPs in the wheat root could only exist if NPs are <140 nm in diameter, with higher aggregation that take place when NPs were much smaller (in the size range 14–22 nm) . Combined, these observations from chemically different ENMs bolster the premise that particle size could be an essential factor regulating ENM bio uptake in plants.
Tobacco mosaic virus
Transmission electron microscope
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Nuclear Localization Signal Peptide;
Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
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