In the context of plant-pathogen interaction, the application of nanoparticle technology and efficient transportation of substances, such as systemic AuNPs to the specific coupling of AuNPs and virus, provide novel solutions for the treatment of plants against the virus. The included data proved that AuNPs provide an efficient means to control virus infection in a fashion way with reducing collateral damage. The AuNPs assure fatal damage to the VLPs with low concentration using different AuNPs sizes. Synergistic therapeutic effects could lead to virus resistance.
- Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV-PAV)
- Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)
In our study by inducing virus particles combining with AuNPs, having an interaction performance (Figures 1 and 2), as illustrated in TEM disappearing Figure 3(B) or/and swelling Figure 4(B), smashing Figure 4(C), deformation Figure 4(E) and (F), corrosive, and puffiness of infected virus particles Figure 4(I),(G), and (H) . Multicomponent surface chemistry has also been explored in the context of gene regulation . Modification of the Au NPs with more than one class of functional group can enable multiple functionalities. One example is that Au NPs have been derivatized with both antisense oligonucleotides and thiolated nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptides. The oligonucleotides on the AuNPs surface are close enough. The counter ions associated with one oligonucleotide also act to screen negative charge on adjacent oligonucleotides; this additional charge screening results in more excellent oligonucleotide duplex stabilization relative to free DNA strands. It explains why the DNA AuNPs aggregates melt at higher temperatures than the same unconjugated oligonucleotide duplexes under the same conditions .
2. Five determinant factors and viral deformation
The application of AuNPs revealed potential damage on VLPs according to five determinant factors that play an essential role in viral particle deformation. First, the incubation period’s time duration with virus particles; (24 hr.& 48 hr.) incubation period exhibited deformation highly and vanishing VLPs weather (in
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