Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Processing of Heavy Crude Oils

Challenges and Opportunities

Edited by Ramasamy Marappa Gounder

Universiti Teknologi Petronas

Unconventional heavy crude oils are replacing the conventional light crude oils slowly but steadily as a major energy source. Heavy crude oils are cheaper and present an opportunity to the refiners to process them with higher profit margins. However, the unfavourable characteristics of heavy crude oils such as high viscosity, low API gravity, low H/C ratio, chemical complexity with high asphaltenes content, high acidity, high sulfur and increased level of metal and heteroatom impurities impede extraction, pumping, transportation and processing. Very poor mobility of the heavy oils, due to very high viscosities, significantly affects production and transportation. Techniques for viscosity reduction, drag reduction and in-situ upgrading of the crude oil to improve the flow characteristics in pipelines are presented in this book. The heavier and complex molecules of asphaltenes with low H/C ratios present many technological challenges during the refining of the crude oil, such as heavy coking on catalysts. Hydrogen addition and carbon removal are the two approaches used to improve the recovery of value-added products such as gasoline and diesel. In addition, the heavy crude oil needs pre-treatment to remove the high levels of impurities before the crude oil can be refined. This book introduces the major challenges and some of the methods to overcome them.

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Processing of Heavy Crude OilsChallenges and OpportunitiesEdited by Ramasamy Marappa Gounder

Published: December 18th 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74912

ISBN: 978-1-83968-410-4

Print ISBN: 978-1-83968-409-8

eBook (PDF) ISBN: 978-1-83968-411-1

Copyright year: 2019

Books open for chapter submissions

6563 Total Chapter Downloads

4 Crossref Citations

6 Web of Science Citations

11 Dimensions Citations


Open access peer-reviewed

1. Introductory Chapter: Heavy Crude Oil Processing - An Overview

By Ramasamy Marappa Gounder


Open access peer-reviewed

2. Methods for Enhancing Recovery of Heavy Crude Oil

By Mohd Afnan Ahmad, Shafirah Samsuri and Nurul Aini Amran


Open access peer-reviewed

3. PVT Properties of Black Crude Oil

By Abdelaziz El-Hoshoudy and Saad Desouky


Open access peer-reviewed

4. Pumping System of Heavy Oil Production

By Tarek Ganat


Open access peer-reviewed

5. Modeling Friction Losses in the Water-Assisted Pipeline Transportation of Heavy Oil

By Sayeed Rushd, Rasel A. Sultan and Shahriar Mahmud


Open access peer-reviewed

6. Ablation of Oil-Sand Lumps in Hydrotransport Pipelines

By Mahshad Pazouki and Sayeed Rushd


Open access peer-reviewed

7. Evaluation of Asphaltenes Deposition Inhibition Factors in Heavy Crude Oil Pipelines

By Hazlina Husin, Mysara Eissa Mohyaldinn Elhaj and Colin D. Wood


Open access peer-reviewed

8. Flow of Heavy Oils at Low Temperatures: Potential Challenges and Solutions

By Emad Soliman


Open access peer-reviewed

9. Challenges during Operation and Shutdown of Waxy Crude Pipelines

By Mysara Eissa Mohyaldinn, Hazlina Husin, Nurul Hasan, Mohamed M.B. Elmubarak, Ahmed M.E. Genefid and Mahmood E.A. Dheeb


Open access peer-reviewed

10. Pre-Treatment of Heavy Crude Oils for Refining

By Faith Uchenna Babalola and Alfred Akpoveta Susu


Open access peer-reviewed

11. Recent Techniques for the Removal of Naphthenic Acid from Heavy Crude Oils

By Feyisayo Victoria Adams, Chikaodili E. Chukwuneke and Bolade O. Agboola


Open access peer-reviewed

12. Nickel Tetraphenylporphine Extraction from Model Heavy Oil Using Ionic Liquids

By Pradip Chandra Mandal


Open access peer-reviewed

13. Catalysts for Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Petroleum Residues

By Ching Thian Tye


Open access peer-reviewed

14. A Model-Based Investment Assessment for Heavy Oil Processing in the Petroleum Refining Industry

By Cheng Seong Khor


Open access peer-reviewed

15. Environmental Challenges Associated with Processing of Heavy Crude Oils

By Samuel O. Sojinu and Onome Ejeromedoghene


Edited Volume and chapters are indexed in

  • Worldcat
  • OpenAIRE
  • Google Scholar
  • AZ ebsco
  • Base
  • CNKI

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