Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume


Enos Wambu

University of Eldoret

Dr. Enos Wambu is the Head of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, as well as the chairperson of the Inspection and Acceptance Committee of the University of Eldoret, in charge of the inspection of the university laboratory and teaching materials. He is a member of the Kenya Chemical Society and the Pan-African Chemistry Network.


Grace Lagat

University of Eldoret

Kiplagat Ayabei

University of Eldoret


Fluoride Fluoride Synthesis Fluoride Characterization Biosphere Fluoride Atmospheric Fluoride Fluoride Hydrogeology Fluoride Pollution Fluoride Use Pollution Projection Toxicological Issue Phytoremediation Strategy Fluoride Remediation

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About the book

Fluoride is one of the most versatile classes of chemical compounds. It is used widely in various applications in public health, medicine, and related industries, creating an extensive interface of exposure to human beings and the environment. At the moment, it is estimated that over 200 million people in at least 35 countries of the world are affected by excessive fluoride exposure. For this reason, the fate of fluoride in the environment and the topical use of fluoride in dental hygiene continue to attract a high level of attention among researchers around the world.

The purpose of this book is to present a survey of cross-cutting topics on fluoride including, but not limited to: chemistry, occurrences, pollution effects, and their remediation, and to present projections for future scenarios in application, trends in environmental pollution, emerging issues in toxicology, and cutting-edge remediation, being presented by the research and technological communities around the globe. The intention is to provide a one-stop in-depth resource for students and workers in policy making, academia, industry, technology, environment, and related fields, who are involved in the work with fluorides in one way or another, and also for those who anticipate to join the fluoride research.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: September 30th 2021

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline for chapter proposals: October 28th 2021

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

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Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: December 27th 2021

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: March 17th 2022

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

Book compiled, published and promoted

Expected publication date: May 16th 2022

All chapters are copy-checked and typesetted before being published. IntechOpen regularly submits its books to major databases for evaluation and coverage, including the Clarivate Analytics Book Citation Index in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection. Other discipline-specific databases are also targeted, such as Web of Science's BIOSIS Previews.

About the editor

Enos Wambu

University of Eldoret

Dr. Enos Wamalwa Wambu is a lecturer at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Eldoret, Kenya. He holds a PhD in Chemistry, and also a master’s degree in Chemistry from the Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. Currently, he is the Head of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Univrsity of Eldoret, and the chairperson of Inspection and Acceptance Committee of the University of Eldoret, in charge of inspection of university laboratory and teaching materials. He has also previously acted as the University Coordinator for Students’ Field Trips and Industrial Attachments, and as a chairperson of the transport committee. He has twenty-three years of work experience, eleven of which include university teaching. His fifteen-year research experience includes contributions as journal reviewer for more than five international journals and thesis review for several universities. He has supervised two doctorate theses, five masters’ theses and over twenty-five undergraduate students’ projects to completion. He has participated in six local and international collaborative research projects, four of which as the lead investigator. He has authored over twenty-two research articles published in international peer reviewed journals, and attended and presented in eight scientific conferences, both locally and internationally. His main research interests are in the area of environmental chemistry, pollution and mitigation of environmental degradation.

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