About the book
“Gastritis” is the more discussed and ambiguous diagnostic definition of the gastric clinicopathological conditions. There are no connections between symptoms, endoscopic and histological features. The clinical and instrumental exams provide data that are difficult to correlate with each other. The symptoms referred to esophagogastroduodenal tract are the epigastric pain, heartburn, dyspepsia; the endoscopy can identify various hemorrhagic and erosive mucosal lesions, hypertrophy, etc. with the subsequent histobioptic ascertainment. Moreover, poor correlations between the endoscopic abnormalities and histological features of the same lesions: gastric mucosa endoscopically as normal should show histologically severe signs of inflammation; the evident endoscopic damage by drugs might turn out as mild phlogistic lesions with histology.
The term gastritis should be used in case of histological phlogistic characteristics. However, the endoscopy has a fundamental role in the gastritis diagnosis, because the microscopic evaluation is made on the mucosal biopsies of abnormalities.
The classifications of gastritis are based on histology; unfortunately, also within the histological field, it’s difficult to present a classification of gastritis, because there are various criteria: first, histological features of inflammation subdivide acute and chronic gastritis; more detailed histological characteristics do list gastritis due to drugs, chemicals, infection agents, trauma, foreign body, tumors, autoimmune gastritis, vascular gastropathy, granulomatous gastritis, etc.; finally others histological characteristics of development of inflammation differentiate chronic atrophic and hypertrophic gastritis. Finally, the gastritis is an inflammatory lesion of the gastric mucosa with various and numerous etiologic factors and histological features of inflammation; consequently, the gastritis is a pathological state, but not a defined disease.