Whole-Body Vibration Exercise as an Intervention to Improve Musculoskeletal Performance
The exposure of individuals to mechanical vibrations produced in vibrating platform can generate whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise. This modality of exercise represents a less tiring alternative to sport, which could benefit mechanical human behavior and prevent sports injuries and musculoskeletal disorders. The specificity of the human body, articulated and connected segments, requires to take into account the biomechanical parameters in protocols involving WBV exercise. Moreover, work time, rest time between the bouts in each session number of sessions, extension of the intervention, and week periodicity must be also well established. Responses to WBV exercise are observed at musculoskeletal, neurological, endocrinological and vascular levels. With respect to the musculoskeletal level, it is verified increase of muscle strength, endurance and power, improvement of the balance, increase of bone mineral density and the decrease of risk of falls. There are several tools to evaluate the responses of the body to WBV exercise. The aim of this chapter is to highlight the relevance of the WBV exercise as an intervention of the physical therapy for the better human optimization.
Part of the book: Physical Therapy Effectiveness
Whole-Body Vibration Approaches in Neurological Disorders
Bipedalism in humans is associated with an upright spine, however, this condition is not found in other animals with that skill. This may have favored the ability to harness the influence of the gravitational forces on the body. Furthermore, it is suggested that human feet have evolved to facilitate bipedal locomotion, losing an opposable digit that grasped branches in favor of a longitudinal arch that stiffens the foot and aids bipedal gait. Gait is a repetition of sequences of body segments to move the body forward while maintaining balance. The bipedal gait favors the contact of the feet of the individual with the floor. As a result, the mechanical vibration (MV) generated during walking, running or other activity with the feet are, normally, are added to the body. In these various situations, the forces would induce the production of MV with consequent transmission to the whole body of the individual and there is the generation of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise naturally. However, when a person has a disability, this normal addition of the MV to body does not occur. This also happens with the sedentary or bedridden individual due to illness. In this case, there are the MV yielded in vibrating platforms. The exposure of the individual to the WBV leads to physiological responses at musculoskeletal, neurological, endocrinological, and vascular levels. Considering the state of the art of this theme and the previously cited scientific information, it is plausible to assume that WBV could be a useful tool to be used on the management of individuals with neurological conditions, such as in Parkinson’s disease, stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, spinocerebellar ataxia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and neuropathy (diabetes- and chemotherapy-related), among others. Indeed, improvements due to the WBV have been described regarding motor, and other impairments, in patients with neurological conditions, and these approaches will be presented in this chapter.
Part of the book: Therapy Approaches in Neurological Disorders
Vibration Therapy for Health Promotion
Vibration therapy has been used as a clinical intervention, in which mechanical vibration is transmitted to a part or to the whole body of the individual. It is very important to point out that mechanical vibration is a natural stimulus that is part of the daily life of all living beings and is periodically added to the organism due to a movement of the body. When, for several reasons, the person cannot add mechanical vibration to the body, the mechanical vibration generated by a device can be transmitted to the person in contact with it. When the intervention aims to treat a complaint referring to a specific anatomical segment, it is called local or segmental vibration therapy. However, when mechanical vibration is transmitted to the whole person’s body, aiming for an improvement in the performance, or as a clinical intervention, the procedure is called Systemic vibration therapy. The biological effects would be due to the mechano-transduction mechanism by which cells convert mechanical stimulus into biological activity, releasing various hormones and other substances. This form of mechano-transduction is important to physiological processes in the body, including proprioception, effects on bone mineral density, muscle, balance, and functionality, promoting the modulation of biological effects through specific signaling pathways. In this chapter, the use of mechanical vibration as an intervention aiming to improve and optimize daily life is discussed, either as a local or systemic application, targeting a specific part of the body or the whole body, respectively.
Part of the book: Complementary Therapies
Obesity: The Relationship between Growth Hormone and Exercises View all chapters
Obesity is one of the main causes of death around the world. Moreover, considering the cardiometabolic risk (CMR), the relationship between obesity and CMR is well-established, and the location of adipose tissue (AT), particularly in the abdominal region, is considered an important predictor of metabolic dysfunction than total fat mass. Central obesity can be related to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The relationship between SAT and CMR is not still clear, but the VAT has been considered a unique pathogenic fat depot. In this context, it is important to identify clinical interventions that could be used to improve the management of obesity. The aim of this chapter is to integrate knowledge about the relevance of exercises and/or growth hormone (GH) to the management of individuals with obesity. In conclusion, it appears that exercise-induced reductions in VAT are mediated by induced changes in GH levels. This could be due to the similar lipolytic effects of both GH and exercise on VAT and this relationship would benefit the role of exercise as an intervention against obesity. Preventing and understanding the development of obesity is therefore essential if it is wanted to curb the global epidemic and save social security several million costs concerning health problems.
Part of the book: Growth Hormone