Part of the book: Salmonella
Part of the book: Bacteriophages
Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. Chitosan is a modified, natural biopolymer derived by deacetylation of chitin. The antimicrobial activity and film-forming property of chitosan makes it a potential source of food preservative or coating material of natural origin for improvement of quality and shelf life of various foods of agriculture, poultry, beef and seafood origin. In addition to its use as an antimicrobial, it has been shown that it has good properties as a mycotoxin adsorbent. The purposes of the present chapter is to summarize our experience using chitin-chitosan from Deacetylated 95% food grade chitosan (Paragon Specialty Products LLC Rainsville, AL) or Aspergillus oryzae meal (Fermacto®, PetAg Inc., Hampshire IL) to control foodborne pathogens, improve performance, biological sanitizer and mycotoxin binder in commercial poultry.
Part of the book: Chitin-Chitosan
An important approach to prevent aflatoxicosis in poultry is the addition of non-nutritional adsorbents in the diet to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the gastrointestinal tract. These adsorbents are large molecular weight compounds that are able to bind the mycotoxin, forming a stable complex adsorbent-mycotoxin, which can pass through the gastrointestinal tract. In this chapter, we evaluate the use of polymers and probiotics to reduce AFB1 toxic effects in poultry. Our results on the efficacy of polymers and probiotics in sequestering mycotoxins are highly promising, although this field is still in its infancy and further research is needed. Furthermore, in vivo studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of these materials against AFB1 toxic effects, since results in the past have indicated that there is great variability in the efficacy of adsorbing materials in vivo, even though the compounds may show potential adsorption capacity of the mycotoxin in vitro.
Part of the book: Mycotoxins
Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces a nutritional deficit that leads to increased bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, and decreased bone mineralization. However, the effect of diet on developmental stage or genetic strain is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to evaluate the effects of a well-established rye model diet during either the early or the late phase of development on performance, bone mineralization, and morphometric analysis. Furthermore, intestinal integrity evaluated by liver bacterial translocation, leakage of FITC-d, and gene expression of tight junctions across three diverse genetic backgrounds Modern 2015 (Cobb 500) broiler chicken, 1995 Cobb broiler chicken, and the Giant Jungle Fowl are also discussed.
Part of the book: Application of Genetics and Genomics in Poultry Science
For millions of years, prokaryotic organisms have functioned as a vital selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. It is now widely accepted that gut bacteria play a vital role in various physiological and metabolic activities of hosts, and thus, it is essential to maintain their homeostasis. Previous studies have shown an association of gut bacterial imbalance (dysbiosis) associated with several pathologies. However, very little is known about possible mechanisms involved between bacteria and hosts to maintain their homeostasis in the gut. Bacterial activities, such as cooperation (biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, quorum sensing, etc.), antagonism, and combination, and host responses of their immune system, gut barrier functions, and different dietary components have been identified as crucial factors for maintaining bacterial homeostasis in the gut. Our understanding of several possible mechanisms involved in gut bacterial homeostasis should be widened to modulate their composition or treat diseases. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of different factors involved in gut bacterial homeostasis with an emphasis on host intestinal barrier and immune system, dietary components, and quorum sensing. Also, brief information regarding roles of microbiota on gut-brain axis has also been included.
Part of the book: Gut Microbiota
In intensive poultry production, a large number of antimicrobials are frequently employed to prevent (prophylactic use) and treat (therapeutic use) diseases, as well as for growth promotion (subtherapeutic use), in order to increase productivity. However, it has been reported that the use of antimicrobials at subtherapeutic doses is closely related to the increase in bacterial resistance and with the treatment failure. In addition to antimicrobial resistance, another problem derived from the use of antimicrobials is the presence of residues in animal products. Therefore, these problems and the ban of antimicrobial as growth promoters have prompted the poultry industry to look for alternatives with similar benefits to antibiotics. Among these alternatives, probiotics are one of the most widely studied and interesting groups. Hence, in the present chapter, the effect of probiotics and direct-fed microbial against foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins will be summarized.
Part of the book: Prebiotics and Probiotics
Nowadays there is a great concern about antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which has been recognized as one of the most serious global public health threats. Multilateral organizations focused on global health accept the use of antibiotics in animal production as one of the main drivers of AMR, so that many strategies to control this problem have been proposed, resulting in the total ban of antibiotics as growth-promoting agents. On the other hand, this ban has led to an increase in the incidence of bacterial infections or even to the use of antibiotics at therapeutic doses, which could cause a worse scenario of bacterial resistance. Poultry is one of the most commonly exploited species worldwide and a sector that continues to grow and industrialize in many parts of the world, so it was to be expected that a large part of the antibiotics used in animal production was destined to this industry. The reduction or complete abolition of antibiotics in poultry production would have a positive effect in the control of AMR, but this would also have negative economic and public health repercussions, caused by foodborne pathogens and the decrease of the productive parameters. For that, many specific alternatives have been evaluated and marketed, prebiotics being one of the most promising alternatives for the poultry industry.
Part of the book: Prebiotics and Probiotics
Pioneer colonization by beneficial microorganisms promote a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, excluding opportunistic pathogens. Commercially, the horizontal transmission of both apathogenic and pathogenic organisms is common during the hatching phase. The microbial bloom occurs as the humidity rises during hatch, exposing naïve chicks to a plethora of potentially harmful microbes. Horizontal transmission or introduction of pathogens may occur as infected chicks hatch or during handling after hatch pull. Moreover, contaminated infertile or non-viable embryonated eggs can serve as reservoirs for pathogenic organisms and even rupture during incubation. The organisms within the contents of these eggs can penetrate the shell of the embryonated eggs and subsequently contaminate the entire cabinet. Formaldehyde fumigation is commonly applied during the hatching phase to control the microbial bloom in the environment, but does not penetrate the eggshell prior to hatch. Additionally, this fumigation technique eliminates microbial organisms in the environment at hatch, including beneficial species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to formaldehyde can damage the tracheal epithelia of neonatal chicks increasing susceptibility to infection by opportunistic microbes. Laboratory challenge models that mimic the microbial bloom that occurs in commercial hatch cabinets can be used to evaluate effective alternatives to control the microbial bloom and promote colonization by beneficial bacteria without the use of formaldehyde fumigation.
Part of the book: Broiler Industry
Part of the book: Towards New Perspectives on Toxoplasma gondii