Part of the book: Erectile Dysfunction
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) has seen in the last two decades an increased level of application in urological practice, first FDA approved in 2011 for neurogenic detrusor overactivity and then later in 2013 for refractory overactive bladder. Hundreds of studies have been published in literature assessing the chemical structure of botulinum toxins and how urothelial injections in the lower urinary tract and vesical instillations can be employed in the management of a spectrum of urological conditions particularly voiding dysfunction. The consensus is still out on toxin A preparations, mode and pattern of application whether instilled or injected intradetrusally, units used, as well as time to onset and duration of effect of injections and is still a dense research topic. This is reflected in the continuously changing and differing grades of recommendations between societies of urological practitioners such as the EAU and AUA, among others. This chapter discusses both the FDA-approved and experimental applications of botulinum toxin A in urology, indications, techniques, and points of debate.
Part of the book: Botulinum Toxin
Urological applications of neuromodulation and neurostimulation are among the most evolving fields for these technologies. First approved for management of refractory urge incontinence, different modalities of neuromodulation and stimulation have been tested, applied and verified for a vast spectrum of voiding and pelvic floor dysfunction disorders. The modalities of delivering this treatment have also evolved in the last three decades, with a focus on sacral neuromodulation. The experimental and established “off-label” applications of neuromodulation have also encompassed chronic pelvic pain disorders, including chronic prostatitis and bladder pain syndrome, among others. In this chapter, we discuss all the hypothesized theories suggested on how this technology provides therapeutic potential for a number of chronic and debilitating urological conditions, the modes of delivery be it anterior, sacral, and posterior tibial to name a few, and the evolving and future applications.