Several experimental and clinical studies have indicated a prominent role of vascular inflammation in the development of endothelial dysfunction. In endothelial dysfunction, the endothelium loses its physiological features, decrements nitric oxide bioavailability, and shifts towards a vasoconstrictor, pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory state. Within arterial wall, the interplay between the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant milieus promotes vascular dysfunction, and perivascular adipose tissue seems to play an important role. Inflammation is now considered a key event in vascular dysfunction and the development of vascular disease associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This concept is supported by the fact that anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin protect endothelial function, and interventions resulting in reduced inflammation such as the administration of salicylates prevent vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Thus, the aim of this review is to address the role of inflammation and its mechanisms in endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes, describing the impact of these conditions on vascular function.
Part of the book: Endothelial Dysfunction