Fusarium causing disease in maize is probably the one of the most serious diseases among the crop plants all over the world. It not only damages the maize plant, reduces its potential yield and its nutritional values but imposes threatening to the human life through the induction of mycotoxin development. F. graminearum and F. moniliforme syn. Fusarium verticillioides are two important maize pathogens that cause substantial damage to its ear, stalk and foliage, causing contamination of grains with mycotoxins. Since conventional methods of controlling the diseases including the chemical methods proved not enough for total control of the disease with creating situation even worse for our surroundings, the application of PGPR and PGPF can play significant role to control the damage caused by Fusarium.
Part of the book: Fusarium
The exploration of microbial resources is necessary for plant growth promotion, biological control, and reducing the agrochemicals and fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Bacteria and fungi are distributed in the biosphere including the rhizosphere and help the host plants by alleviating biotic and abiotic stress through different mechanisms and can be used as bioinoculants for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Actinobacteria are among the most abundant groups of soil microorganisms. They have been studied for their function in the biological control of plant pathogens, interactions with plants, and plant growth promotion. Streptomyces is the largest genus of actinobacteria. Streptomyces acts as both plant growth promoter and also as plant disease suppressor by various mechanisms like an increase in the supply of nutrients such as phosphorus, iron, production of IAA, and siderophore production. Endophytic actinobacteria help in plant growth-promoting through multiple ways by producing plant hormones; controlling fungal disease through antibiosis and competition. This review briefly summarizes the effects of actinobacteria on biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and association with plants as endophytes.
Part of the book: Actinobacteria