Brain plasticity is regulated through dynamic interactions between perineuronal nets, matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several studies have identified a crucial role for vitamins D and B12 in brain development and a deficiency in these vitamins may contribute to the emergence of cognitive deficits, as well as the onset of both autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms underlying the interplay between ECM, MMPs, vitamins and these neuropsychiatric conditions are poorly understood. In this chapter, we seek to understand how the risk of neurodegeneration in vulnerable individuals and the aetiology of specific neuropsychiatric disorders are affected by vitamin D and B12 deficiency, in conjunction with low levels of the antioxidant glutathione, impaired GABAergic inhibition, and alterations in the permanent ECM.
Part of the book: B-Complex Vitamins