Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular disease most prevalent in East Asian Countries. Thanks to the new diagnostic capabilities, the number of cases discovered has been rising steadily in the latest years, including many asymptomatic patients. But asymptomatic from the clinical point of view does not necessarily mean that there are no subjacent problems and that there will be no disease progression. Indeed, many patients harbour cognitive decline long before they start with clinical or even radiological manifestations. The only effective treatment is surgical revascularization, with all its possibilities: direct, indirect, and combined. While direct techniques are more useful in adult moyamoya patients, children seem to benefit most from indirect techniques. Additionally, indirect or combined procedures can be used as salvage procedures in case of unsatisfactory outcomes. Thus, many surgeons posit that surgical treatment should be considered in moyamoya patients, even if asymptomatic, particularly in the paediatric age group.
Part of the book: Moyamoya Disease