Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains an important health problem worldwide. Pathophysiology of TBI has been intensively investigated. Many novel theories related with pathophysiology of TBI have been regularly proposed. Targeted temperature management (TTM), previously known as therapeutic hypothermia, has a well-established benefit for application as neuroprotective therapy and intracranial pressure (ICP) control. With the novel automatic feedback machine, application of TTM in clinical practice becomes much feasible and safe. Many pre-clinical trials of TTM in models with TBI demonstrated usefulness in multiple aspects. The successful story of TTM in patients with restore of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest is a good example for bench to bedside. In the past decade, many clinical trials of TTM in patients with TBI have been conducted with the hope to be another successful study.
Part of the book: Traumatic Brain Injury
Medical treatment seems to be not entirely helpful in the treatment of Moyamoya disease. No evidence supports the benefits of any drug treatment in Moyamoya disease. The ischemic or hemorrhagic event in Moyamoya disease is not preventable with any medical treatment. However, most of the physicians still prescribe the antithrombotic drug for Moyamoya patients with an ischemic event. Moreover, the standard guidelines recommend administering antithrombotic medications to treat Moyamoya with the ischemic event, even the risk of hemorrhagic complication. Antihypertensive drugs are routinely prescribed in Moyamoya patients with or without elevated blood pressure. A literature review about medical treatment in Moyamoya disease should help determine its use in this pathologic condition.
Part of the book: Moyamoya Disease
After resuscitation from cardiac arrest, a combination of the complex pathophysiologic process, known as post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS), is attributed to multiple organ damage. Global ischemic cascade occurs in the brain due to generalized ischemia during cardiac arrest and the reperfusion process after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), leading to hypoxic/ ischemic brain injury. Targeted temperature management (TTM) is a well-known neuroprotective therapy for ischemic/hypoxic brain injury. This global brain injury is a significant cause of death in PCAS. The implementation of TTM for PCAS leads to a reduction in mortality and better clinical outcomes among survivors. Prognostication is an essential part of post-resuscitation care. Before the TTM era, physicians relied on the algorithm for prognostication in comatose patients released by the American Academy of Neurology in 2006. However, TTM also announced more significant uncertainty during prognostication. During this TTM era, prognostication should not rely on just a solitary parameter. The trend of prognostication turns into a multimodal strategy integrating physical examination with supplementary methods, consisting of electrophysiology such as somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and electroencephalography (EEG), blood biomarkers, particularly serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and neuro-radiography including brain imaging with CT/MRI, to enhance prognostic accuracy.
Part of the book: Cardiac Arrhythmias