Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological syndrome, which occurs at a rate of 3–25 per 100,000 population. Smoking and hypertension are the most important risk factors of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Rupture of cerebral aneurysm leads to rapid spread of blood into cerebrospinal fluid and subsequently leads to sudden increase of intracranial pressure and severe headache. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with neurological (such as re‐bleeding and vasospasm) and systemic (such as myocardial injury and hyponatremia) complications that are causes of high mortality and morbidity. Although patients with poor‐grade subarachnoid hemorrhage are at higher risk of neurological and systemic complications, the early and aggressive management of this group of patient has decreased overall mortality by 17% in last 40 years. Early aneurysm repair, close monitoring in dedicated neurological intensive care unit, prevention, and aggressive management of medical and neurological complications are the most important strategies to improve outcome.
Part of the book: Intensive Care
This topic aims to discuss key aspects of anesthetic and airway management for head and neck surgery. Airway management is a central part of patient care and management in Head and Neck Surgery. Common challenges in Head and Neck surgery are shared airway, distorted airway anatomy due to existing pathology; risk of airway obstruction, disconnection or loss of airway intra-operatively; risk of soiling of the airway due to bleeding and surgical debris; and the potential for airway compromise post-operatively. The option for airway management technique is influenced by patient’s factors, anesthetic needs, and surgical requirements. Intubation technique necessitating either a small or large cuffed tracheal tube with a throat pack provides the highest level of airway protection Non-intubation or open airway techniques involve mask ventilation, apneic techniques, and insufflation techniques, or the use of a laryngeal mask airway. Lastly, jet ventilation techniques may be conducted via a supraglottic, subglottic or transtracheal routes. It is essential to have clear airway management plans including rescue airway strategies that should be communicated with the surgeons and patients at the earliest opportunity.
Part of the book: Surgical Management of Head and Neck Pathologies
Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular occlusive disease; characterized by narrowing of the distal internal carotid arteries and their branches. The incidence is high in East Asians and most commonly presents in the first and fourth decade of life. Its symptoms are headaches, seizures, transient neurological deficits, and cognitive decline. Medical management is based on treating the symptoms and includes antiplatelet and anti-seizure medications. Surgical revascularization is the mainstay of treatment. Unique pathophysiology of moyamoya disease necessitates neuro-anesthesiologists to formulate an individualized plan perioperatively. The overriding goal of perioperative anesthetic management of moyamoya disease is to ensure optimal cerebral perfusion and protection. Maintenance of normotension, normocarbia, normo-oxygenation, normothermia, and euvolemia is the cornerstone during the perioperative period. Perioperative adequate analgesia is crucial to prevent cerebral ischemia and allows close neurological monitoring. This chapter reviews perioperative anesthetic management of patients with moyamoya disease.
Part of the book: Moyamoya Disease