The chapter is divided into two parts. In the first part, the chapter discusses the theory of propagation of electromagnetic waves in different media with the help of Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic waves with low frequency are suitable for the communication in sea water and are illustrated with numerical examples. The underwater communication have been used for the oil (gas) field monitoring, underwater vehicles, coastline protection, oceanographic data collection, etc. The mathematical expression of penetration depth of electromagnetic waves is derived. The significance of penetration depth (skin depth) and loss angle are clarified with numerical examples. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with human tissue is also discussed. When an electric field is applied to a dielectric, the material takes a finite amount of time to polarize. The imaginary part of the permittivity is corresponds to the absorption length of radiation inside biological tissue. In the second part of the chapter, it has been shown that a high frequency wave can be generated through plasma under the presence of electron beam. The electron beam affects the oscillations of plasma and triggers the instability called as electron beam instability. In this section, we use magnetohydrodynamics theory to obtain the modified dispersion relation under the presence of electron beam with the help of the Poisson’s equation. The high frequency instability in plasma grow with the magnetic field, wave length, collision frequency and the beam density. The growth rate linearly increases with collision frequency of electrons but it is decreases with the drift velocity of electrons. The real frequency of the instability increases with magnetic field, azimuthal wave number and beam density. The real frequency is almost independent with the collision frequency of the electrons.
The first part of the contributed chapter discuss the overview of electric propulsion technology and its requirement in different space missions. The technical terms specific impulse and thrust are explained with their relation to exhaust velocity. The shortcoming of the Hall thrusters and its erosion problems of the channel walls are also conveyed. The second part of the chapter discuss the various waves and electromagnetic instabilities propagating in a Hall thruster magnetized plasma. The dispersion relation for the azimuthal growing waves is derived analytically with the help of magnetohydrodynamics theory. It is depicted that the growth rate of the instability increases with magnetic field, electron drift velocity and collisional frequency, whereas it is decreases with the initial drift of the ions.
Part of the book: Plasma Science and Technology