Since 1990, oil palm cultivation, because nibbling large zones in dense forest areas of Cameroon, becomes the main driver of deforestation. It leads to the loss of plant and animal biodiversity as well as engaging soils and water pollution, which raises questions about its sustainability. Nowadays, palm plantations occupy almost 400 000 ha shared between agro-industries, elites and small farmers while annual palm oil production increased from 150, 000 tons in 2000 to 413,000 tons in 2018 against a demand that peaked at 1.179 million tons in 2018. This would assess the impacts of the oil palm exploitation in Cameroon. The objective of this article is to analyze the four dimensions of impacts closely linked to sustainability dimensions (ecological, sociocultural, economical and institutional) dimensions of sustainability of the oil palm sector in Cameroon. The approach is based on field surveys carried out in various production basins, particularly in the South-West, Littoral and Central regions. They also take into account the resolutions of various workshops bringing together stakeholders on the matter of sustainability in the oil palm sector in Cameroon. Satellite images were also used to map the spatial evolution of oil palm in the production basins. The result is a boom and a considerable expansion of the oil palm to which we can note a lack of adequate policy due to the constraints and hesitations of the Cameroonian administrations. Such a situation requires a better articulation of the tensions between development and environmental issues in Cameroon.
Part of the book: Elaeis guineensis