The application of statistical modeling and optimization approaches such as response surface methodology (RSM) is important for the excellent potential to tackle different constraints and goals and the analysis of the relationships between independent factors influencing a particular response. This chapter provides a simple yet detailed literature review on the utilization of RSM for the design of experiments, modeling, and optimization of virgin and alternative materials into asphalt binder and mixtures for sustainability. Meanwhile, an in-depth analysis based on the literature reviewed in terms of asphalt binder modification employing RSM with various independent parameters were summarized. Also, a critical review of the application of RSM to optimize the engineering and mechanical performance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures is presented in this chapter. The current chapter concluded that the use of RSM statistical analysis in a highway materials perspective provides a broader understanding of the factors that control pavement performance throughout the pavement service life.
Part of the book: Response Surface Methodology in Engineering Science
Conservation of natural resources to create ecological balance could be significantly improved by substituting them with waste by-products. Palm oil industry operations increases annually, thereby generating huge quantity of waste to be dumped into the landfill. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a solid waste by-product produced in one of the oil palm processing phases. This chapter is designed to highlight the generation, disposal problems, properties and composition of POC. The waste to resource potentials of POC would be greatly discussed in the chapter starting with the application of POC in conventional and geopolymer structural elements such as beams, slabs, columns made of either concrete, mortar or paste for coarse aggregates, sand and cement replacement. Aspects such as performance of POC in wastewater treatment processes, fine aggregate and cement replacement in asphaltic and bituminous mixtures during highway construction, a bio-filler in coatings for steel manufacturing processes and a catalyst during energy generation would also be discussed. Circular economy potentials, risk assessment and leaching behavior during POC utilization would be evaluated. The chapter also discusses the effectiveness of POC in soil stabilization and the effect of POC pretreatment for performance enhancement. Towards an efficient utilization, it is important to carry out technical and economic studies, as well as life cycle assessments, in order to compare all the POC areas of application described in the present review article. POC powder has proven to be pozzolanic with maximum values of 17, 53.7, 0.92, 3.87, 1.46, for CaO, SiO2, SO3, Fe2O3 and Al2O3. Therefore, the present chapter would inspire researchers to find research gaps that will aid the sustainable use of agroindustry wastes. The fundamental knowledge contained in the chapter could also serve as a wake-up call for researchers that will motivate them to explore the high potential of utilizing POC for greater environmental benefits associated with less cost when compared with conventional materials.
Part of the book: Elaeis guineensis