Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being a chronic inflammatory disease can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Abnormal functioning of immune response is the main underlying cause of RA. A growing number of studies on related diseases uncovered that microRNA (miRNA) may influence the pathogenesis of RA, such as the promotion of proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes and secretion of cytokines by highly expressed miRNAs. A large number of studies have reported the aberrant expressions of miRNAs during the entire phase of RA, from the preclinical to terminal stages. These dynamic changes can be potentially developed as a bio-marker for predicting the risk, diagnosis and clinical management of RA. This chapter aims to summarize and discuss miRNAs’ roles and mechanisms in the process of RA development, differential diagnosis from other diseases, clinical management and refractory RA. Therefore, miRNA demonstrates future perspectives of diagnosis and treatment of clinical RA under the support of newly discovered theoretical basis.
Part of the book: Rheumatoid Arthritis