Phenolic compounds are vast, diverse, ubiquitous and widespread in nature. The biological significance of bioactive phenolic natural secondary metabolites is immense and of high and significant importance. Phenolic compounds are known to exhibit various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This book chapter begins with classification of phenolic compounds in concise manner followed by going through their chemical properties that are essential for their biological activities. Some chemical properties such as acidity and formation of radicals are directly linked with their important and key biological activities such as antioxidant properties. The chapter covers methods and updated techniques of analysis of phenolic compounds. Finally, biosynthesis of such important organic molecules is covered going through some of their current synthesis methods in the laboratory, methods of their synthetic elaboration. Due to the high potential of phenolic compounds for applications in various industries such as pharmaceutical and food industries, the search for the development of efficient methods for their synthesis as well as modern and accurate methods for their detection and analysis will continue.
Part of the book: Phenolic Compounds
Lewis acids have played a pivotal role in organic synthesis. The inherent Lewis acidity of semimetal or metal ions, which stems from possession of empty orbitals or electron-accepting ability/electron pair affinity, has granted them the ability to catalyze various and numerous organic functional group transformations and methods for carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation reactions. Lewis acids have developed from conventional catalysts to modern green ones that have enabled a wide range of chemical transformations and chemical processes of applications in various fields, such as pharmaceutical and petroleum/petrochemical industries. The chapter begins with a definition and description of Lewis acids and their significance in chemistry as an electronic science. The chapter then covers the uses and applications of Lewis acids as homogeneous catalysts in conventional organic reactions that employ and/or are Lewis-acids catalysts. Coverage continues on the importance of developments and inception of green and environmentally benign Lewis acids that can help preserve the environment, in a manifestation of green chemistry principles. Illustrations of the importance and applications of green Lewis acids in Lewis acid-catalyzed organic reactions and C-C bond formation reactions are covered. The chapter aims at introducing and stimulating the reader to Lewis acids, their description, and significance in synthetic organic chemistry in particular and in chemistry as a whole.
Part of the book: Electrophile and Lewis Acid