Tracheal replacement remains an important unmet need for patients with extensive lesions. Tracheal allografts treated by cryopreservation and lyophilization have been used as experimental methods for replacing long segments of the trachea. We compare the effect of lyophilization and cryopreservation on the canine tracheal cartilage by microscopic evaluation of necrotic cell death. Canine tracheal segments were rinsed and randomly divided into a control group (G1) and two biopreservation groups: lyophilization (G2) [−70–55°C/10 mmBar] and cryopreservation (G3) [RPMI-1640 + 10%DMSO + 10%SBF, −70°C/−196°C]. After tracheal segments were rehydrated (G2) or thawed (G3), the central ring was obtained from each tracheal segment and processed for histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin and for caspase-3 expression by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, chondrocytes without apparent abnormalities, nucleus with karyorrhexis, and caspase-3 expression decreased significantly with the effect of lyophilization and cryopreservation (p < 0.001, ANOVA + Tukey, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis), while a significant decrease in pyknotic nuclei was observed only with the effect of the lyophilization as well as an increase in the nucleus with karyolysis and empty lacunae (p < 0.001, ANOVA + Tukey). The mean percentages of normal chondrocytes and empty lacunae were significantly affected by lyophilization compared with cryopreservation (p < 0.01, ANOVA + Tukey). Our results strongly suggest that lyophilization has a deleterious impact on the tracheal cartilage.
Part of the book: Cryopreservation in Eukaryotes
Surgeries are practiced in different areas, and specifically in the thorax described in this chapter, the medical doctors must know in detail the biological structures in which they perform such surgical procedures. Therefore, in this chapter, we refer to the descriptive and topographical anatomy written by French doctors L. Testut and A. Latarjet. In earlier times, for several reasons, the medical surgeon operated all body organs and was involved in resolving the pathology of different areas. Currently and in the future, medical knowledge in thoracic surgery will cover subspecialties specifically divided, for example: assisted video surgery, interventional bronchoscopy, and mediastinoscopies to take mediastinal biopsies using robotic surgery of pulmonary exeresis to shorten the hospitalization period and even the days spent in the intensive care unit.
Part of the book: Medical and Surgical Education